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Basic Brewing Instructions 
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Clean and sanitize all equipment.

1.  Remove yeast vial from refrigeration and shake, set aside.
2.  Immerse container of malt extract in warm tap water and let stand 15 min.
 
If your kit does not include crushed grains, skip to step #3.
 
STEEPING:
a.  Put crushed grains in mesh bag. Tie shut.
b.  In a large pot, heat 2-3 gallons of water to 150 degrees Fahrenheit.
c.  Immerse grain bag in water and allow to steep for 30 minutes, agitating often.  Adjust heat to maintain 150 degrees.
d.  Remove bag from water, allowing excess to drip into pot. Do not wring liquid from the bag as this can cause off flavors.
e.  Discard bag and bring grain-infused water, now called wort, to a boil. Go to step #4.
 
3.  In a large pot, bring 2-3 gallons of water to a boil.
4.  Remove pot from hot burner and add malt extract. Mix for several minutes before returning pot to hot burner.
5.  Slowly bring wort to a boil, adjusting heat to avoid a boil over.
6.  Once a rolling boil is established, set a timer to 60 minutes.  Add your first hop if applicable, stirring to reduce foam.
7.  Add remaining hops as the recipe dictates. The times on the recipe are the remaining time left in the boil, counting down to zero.  If using Irish Moss, add it during the last 15 minutes.
8.  When the timer reaches zero, remove from heat, add cold, clean water up to 5 gallons and let stand in ice bath until wort is around 75f.  Everything that touches the beer from this point on must be sanitized.  Gently stir both the wort and the bath water to distribute heat. 
9.  Transfer to primary fermenter and top off to 5 gallons if needed.
10.  Check that wort temperature is 70-75f.
11.  Take a hydrometer reading and record it. This is your original gravity (OG)
12.  Aerate well by pouring wort from the fermenter to the brew pot and back a few times.  This is the only time to aerate wort.
13.  Pitch yeast and seal fermenter lid.  Fill an airlock with sterile water or sanitizer and attach to lid. Place fermenter in a cool, dark place.
14.  Unless otherwise specified in the recipe, allow to ferment at 70 degrees Fahrenheit for 7 days. Airlock should begin bubbling vigorously within 24 hours, and slow down 4-6 days later. Try to maintain a constant temperature in the fermenting area. A layer of foam will form on the surface of the wort. This is called Krausen, and is a clear indicator that fermentation is occurring.
15.  Secondary Fermentation: If you have a glass carboy, siphon beer to it from your primary fermenter, leaving sediment behind, and seal with a bung and airlock. If you do not have a carboy, do nothing. Wait 7-10 more days.
16.  Bottling: Sanitize 55-60 twelve-ounce bottles. Take a hydrometer reading and record it. This is your final gravity (FG). To approximate alcohol content, subtract the final gravity from the original gravity and multiply it by 131. Hydrometers are calibrated to work at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Measurements taken at different temperatures will need to be adjusted.
17.  Bring 1 cup of water to a boil in a Pyrex measuring cup (in a microwave) and dissolve either 1¼ cup of DME or 5 oz of corn sugar. Allow to cool to room temperature, then pour the solution into bottling bucket and siphon beer on top.
18.  Slowly stir (do not aerate) the beer with a tall spoon once you finish siphoning.
19.  Use a siphon hose to connect the bottling bucket spigot to the bottle filler.  Open the spigot now.  The valve on the filler will keep the beer from spilling.
20.  Insert the filler into a bottle, tapping the valve on the bottom to start flow.  When the bottle is full, lift the filler to stop flow again.
21.  Remove filler from the bottle, leaving about an inch of head space in the bottle.  Place a crown cap on the bottle and crimp closed using a twin-lever capper.
22.  Repeat steps 20 and 21 until all beer has been bottled.  Stir gently every few bottles to get a consistent mixture of priming sugar into each bottle.
23.  Store the bottles at room temperature for at least 2 weeks.
24.  Refrigerate and enjoy.