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Glossary of Terms

This is a list of common terms used in the production of fermented beverages. This page covers terminology from the basic to the most advanced. If you can't find the word you're looking for, please let us know and we'll find the definition for you.

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Abbey Ale - A term referring to beers made in a similar style to those traditionally brewed in abbeys or monasteries. The term is often used to designate beers that mimic trappist varieties, but do not meet the strict requirements to be labeled as a trappist product. `Abbey Ale` is not a style in itself, but can be used to mean one of several styles including dubbels and tripels.
See also: Trappist, Style

Acetaldehyde - A chemical that is naturally produced by yeast during their reproductive cycle. Acetaldehyde has a green apple aroma and flavor that can often be smelled in fermenting beverages. It is normally reabsorbed by the yeast at the end of fermentation, but any that remains will leave a green apple impression in the finished beverage which is usually considered a fault.
See also: Aldehyde, Yeast, Off-Flavor

Acetic Acid - A type of acid that is produced by bacteria. The bacteria known as acetobacter consumes alcohol and produces acetic acid as a result. Acetic acid has a distinct sour flavor, and is the primary component in vinegar. Acetobacter carried by fruit flies is a common cause of unintended sour flavors in fermented beverages.
See also: Acid, Bacteria, Acetobacter, Off-Flavor

Acetobacter - A type of bacteria that consumes alcohol and produces acetic acid. This bacteria is spread by fruit flies and is the primary cause of unintended vinegar flavors in fermented beverages.
See also: Acetic Acid, Bacteria

Acid - A chemical compound with a pH of less than 7. Acids impart a range of tart, sour or vinegary flavors to a finished beverage and affect the overall pH of a solution. By altering the pH, they impact fermentation and mashing reactions. Acids can be neutralized by adding alkaline salts, and acidic flavors can be balanced out by increasing sweetness in the finished beverage.
See also: Acidity, Titratable Acidity, pH, Balance, Water Salts

Acid Rest - A rest performed early in a step mash schedule. The mash is held at around 95 degrees Fahrenheit to lower the pH of the mash. This method of lowering mash pH is a more traditional method, but the same effect can be achieved by adding pure lactic acid to the mash itself.
See also: Rest, Step Mash, pH

Acidity - The amount of acidic chemicals in a solution. The presence of acids affect the flavor of a beverage and can have an impact on fermentation and mashing reactions. Total acidity can be measured by titration, and the balance of acidity and alkalinity can be measured by taking a pH reading. Acidic solutions have a pH between 0 and 7. Very acidic water can cause problems in beer or wine making. Many water salts contribute to acidity in water and pH can be adjusted by using these salts.
See also: Acid, pH, Titratable Acidity, Mash, Fermentation, Water Salts

Acrospire - The beginnings of a plant shoot in germinating barley. If germination is not halted, the acrospire will continue to grow into a full size plant. The length of the acrospire in malted barley can be used to determine how well modified the grain is.
See also: Malt, Modification

Ad-Humulone - One of the three primary alpha acids that provide bitterness to a beer when boiled. Ad-humulone is usually the least common of the three, although in some varieties it can outnumber co-humulone.
See also: Alpha Acids, Humulone, Co-Humulone, Bittering

Adjunct - A term referring to beer ingredients that are not malted grain, yeast or hops. Adjuncts typically provide sugars for fermentation, but usually different varieties than what is found in malt. The most common adjuncts are unmalted flaked grains such as maize, barley, rice or oats, refined sugars and candy syrups. Using adjuncts can impart a wider array of flavors and textures to a finished beer than traditional ingredients would on their own.
See also: Malt, Reinheitsgebot, Maize, Rice, All-Malt Beer

Aerate - To mix air into a solution. Aeration is performed by brewers before fermentation begins to provide oxygen for the yeast`s respiration phase. Aeration can be achieved by vigorously splashing the wort or must, or by injecting pure oxygen from a tank. Aeration should be avoided after fermentation since it can lead to paper or cardboard-like off flavors.
See also: Oxygen, Aerobic, Respiration, Off-Flavor, Hot Side Aeration

Aerobic - A process that requires oxygen to occur. Many types of bacteria metabolize aerobically, which is one reason why minimizing oxygen contact with beer or wine is very important. The initial reproductive stage of yeast cells is aerobic, which is why proper aeration is beneficial to a fermentation.
See also: Anaerobic, Bacteria, Aerate

Aftertaste - The perceivable flavors and textures left after a beverage is swallowed. The aftertaste can linger for some time and helps to create the lasting impression of a beverages quality. Aftertaste is influenced by aromatics left in the mouth.
See also: Flavor, Aroma

Agar - A gelatinous agent that is used as a microbial culturing agent. Agar is used to grow microbes under controlled conditions for laboratory analysis.
See also: Microbe, Bacteria

Aging - The process of storing a fermented beverage for long periods of time and allowing it to mature. Aging can have a variety of effects on a beverage, ranging from a mellowing of harsher flavors to a mild oxidizing effect that creates sherry like flavors. Aging can be done in the bottle, in a carboy or in a barrel. Aging on wood can impart a variety of pleasant flavors.
See also: Cellaring, Lagering, Vanillin, Barrel

Airlock - Also known as a fermentation lock, this is a device fitted to a fermenter that prevents outside air from reaching the fermenting beverage. Using a simple bubble method, airlocks allow CO2 gas produced by the fermentation to escape, while keeping contaminants from the atmosphere out of the fermenter.
See also: Fermentation, Fermenter, Blow-Off, Carbon Dioxide

Alcohol - A by-product of fermentation. Yeast produce alcohol as part of their natural metabolism, leaving it behind in a solution. If fermentation is properly controlled, the alcohol will combine with various flavor compounds to produce a wide variety of delicious beverages with varying amounts of alcohol in them. Alcohol has an effect on the human body that is considered pleasurable by most, but can impair one`s ability to reason or perform tasks. Excessive consumption of alcohol can have long lasting negative effects on the body.
See also: Alcoholic Beverage, Alcoholic, Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Alcohol By Weight (ABW), Ethanol, Methanol

Alcohol By Volume (ABV) - A method of measuring the alcohol content of a beverage. Alcohol by volume is expressed as a percentage, where a drink with 5% ABV is 5% alcohol and 95% non-alcoholic substances. A drink that is 10% ABV has twice the alcohol per oz than a drink that is 5% ABV. Sometimes denoted as v/v.
See also: Alcohol By Weight (ABW), Alcohol

Alcohol By Weight (ABW) - A unit for measuring the alcohol content of a beverage. ABW expresses the weight of the alcohol from the drink as compared to the weight of the total beverage. It is not used nearly as often as alcohol by volume. Sometimes denoted as w/v.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Alcohol

Alcoholic - A warming sensation felt when drinking a high ABV beverage. It can be described as spicy or vinous in flavor and can cause a mild prickling sensation in the nose, mouth and throat. Excessive alcoholic character can make a beverage taste `hot` or `solvent-like`, which is generally considered a fault. The term is also used to refer to someone who is incapable of moderating their alcohol consumption, which causes both social and health problems.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Off-Flavor

Alcoholic Beverage - Any drink containing a significant amount of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages come in a wide variety of forms and are consumed for pleasure by adults. The alcohol in these beverages has an effect on the human body that is considered pleasurable by most, but can impair one`s ability to reason or perform tasks.
See also: Beer, Wine, Mead, Cider, Liquor, Quaff

Aldehyde - Chemical precursors to alcohol with distinct flavors. Aldehydes are reabsorbed by yeast after primary fermentation has finished. In some cases, alcohol can be oxidized into aldehydes if a beverage is poorly handled. The presence of aldehydes in a finished product can create strong off-flavors.
See also: Acetaldehyde, Off-Flavor

Ale - A type of beer brewed with top fermenting yeast. Ales have a shorter, warmer fermentation than lagers and are usually fermented between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The word `ale` does not refer to a style on its own, but encompasses a wide variety of beer styles ranging from super light blonde ales to tar colored stouts.
See also: Beer, Lager, Ale Yeast, Style

Ale Yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains that are top-fermenting. These strains perform well at temperatures between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit, making them popular for homebrewers who do not have the means to store beer at the much lower temperatures required for lagers. The higher fermentation temperatures used with ale yeasts tends to produce more by-products, such as fruity esters, that linger into a finished beer and give it more complexity.
See also: Yeast, Lager Yeast, Top-Fermenting, Esters, By-Product

Aleurone Layer - A living sheath that surrounds the endosperm of a barley grain. The aleurone layer contains enzymes that are used in the mashing process.
See also: Mash, Enzymes, Endosperm

Alkalinity - The amount of alkaline (base) chemicals in a solution. The presence of bases can affect the flavor of a beverage and have an impact on fermentation and mashing reactions. The balance of acidity and alkalinity can be measured by taking a pH reading. Alkaline solutions have a pH between 7 and 14. Very alkaline water can cause problems in beer or wine making. Bicarbonates are the greatest contributor to alkalinity in water. pH can be adjusted using water salts.
See also: pH, Base, Water Salts, Mash, Fermentation

All-Extract Beer - A beer that is made entirely from pre-made malt extracts. No malted grains are used during the brewing process of these beers. All-extract beers are the easiest to make, but offer less in control over the flavor profile of the final product.
See also: Extract Beer, Liquid Malt Extract (LME), Dry Malt Extract (DME), All-Grain Beer, Steeping

All-Grain Beer - A beer made by mashing malted grains without using pre-made extracts. Extract for these beers is made as part of the brewing process, allowing the brewer more control of the final product. Additional time and equipment is needed to produce an all-grain beer.
See also: Extract Beer, All-Extract Beer, Mash, Lautering, Extract

All-Malt Beer - A beer made entirely with malted grains or malt extracts. No adjuncts are used to produce beers of this kind, making them compliant to the reinheitsgebot.
See also: Reinheitsgebot , Adjunct

Alpha Acid Percentage - The amount of alpha acids in a given hop, expressed as a percentage of the total weight. The alpha acid content will vary between different varieties, or between different crops of the same variety. The higher a hop`s alpha acid content, the more bittering potential it will have.
See also: Bittering, International Bittering Units (IBUs), Hops
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Alpha Acid Units (AAU) - A measurement of the amount of Alpha Acids used in a recipe. AAUs are calculated by taking the weight of a hop in ounces and multiplying it by the alpha acid percentage. Measuring this way helps keep the total amount of alpha acids consistent from batch to batch of the same recipe, which helps to maintain a consistent level of bitterness. AAUs are equivalent to HBUs.
See also: Bittering, International Bittering Units (IBUs), Hops, Alpha Acid Percentage

Alpha Acids - Natural occurring resins that are the primary bittering agent in hops. These chemicals convert into iso-alpha acids during the boil, which adds a bitter taste to beer. The longer a hop is boiled, the more alpha acids are converted and the more bitterness is imparted. Alpha acids can oxidize during aging, which lessons the bitterness of the finished beer.
See also: Bittering, Iso-Alpha Acids, Beta Acids, Humulone, Ad-Humulone, Co-Humulone

Alpha Amylase - One of the two primary enzymes that convert starches into sugars during a mash. Alpha amylase works by breaking a chain of amylose at random locations, cleaving it into smaller chunks and exposing end points for beta amylase to interact with. Alpha amylase works best at temperatures between 150 and 158 degrees.
See also: Amylase, Beta Amylase, Mash, Starch, Sugar, Amylose

Amelioration - Adding water, sugar or chemicals into a wine must in order to make improvements. This is strictly regulated in most commercial wineries.
See also: Wine, Sugar, Must, Blending

American Homebrewer`s Association (AHA) - Founded in 1978, the American Homebrewer`s Association is an advocate group for homebrewers rights. The AHA is an organized group of people who lobby for law changes to lift restrictions on the homebrewing hobby, promote events and marketing to help spread the hobby, assist in the formation of homebrewing guilds and clubs and help with the planning and administration of homebrewing competitions. The AHA is a division of the Brewer`s Association and publish the homebrewing magazine `Zymurgy`.
See also: Brewer`s Association (BA), Zymurgy

American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) - An American organization that determines testing methods and standards for brewing procedures and materials. The ASBC developed the SRM testing model used to determine the color of a beer. Europe has a similar organization called the European Brewing Congress.
See also: Standard Reference Method (SRM), Color, European Brewing Convention (EBC), Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP)
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Amino Acids - A building block for proteins. These organic acids can be found in high concentrations in wort and act as buffers for the mash pH. They can also contribute nitrogen, which the yeast uses as a nutrient.
See also: pH, Buffer, Protein, Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN)

Amylase - A type of enzyme that converts starches into simple sugars. Amylase enzymes work during the mash, breaking down starches into smaller sugars that the yeast will be able to metabolize later on. There are two primary amylase enzymes used in brewing: alpha amylase and beta amylase. The two types each work best at different temperature ranges, which is why the temperature of a mash will have a significant impact on the fermentability of a finished beer.
See also: Alpha Amylase, Beta Amylase, Mash, Starch, Sugar, Fermentability

Amylodextrin - The most complex dextrin formed by the reduction of starches into sugars. Like all dextrins, amylodextrin is unfermentable and adds body to a finished beer.
See also: Dextrin, Amylolysis

Amylolysis - The reduction of starch into smaller sugar compounds by enzymatic action. During a mash, amylase enzymes degrade starch into fermentable sugars and dextrins.
See also: Enzymes, Starch, Amylase, Dextrin, Amylodextrin

Amylopectin - A branched starch chain composed of amylose. Amylopectin is naturally found in the endosperm of barley. The branched structure of amylopectin makes it more difficult for enzymes to act on it, leaving behind more dextrins.
See also: Amylose, Endosperm, Dextrin

Amylose - A straight chain starch molecule found in the endosperm of a barley grain. Amylose is broken down by amylase enzymes during the mash, and becomes fermentable sugars as a result.
See also: Amylase, Endosperm

Anaerobic - A process that does not require oxygen to occur or that requires the absence of oxygen to occur. The majority of alcohol is produced through anaerobic processes. The most common cause of infection in beer or wine is from bacteria that metabolizes anaerobically, since it can survive in fermenters where oxygen levels are extremely low.
See also: Aerobic, Bacteria

Aperitif - An alcoholic beverage served as a precursor to a meal. These are often dry beverages rather than sweet in order to whet the appetite
See also: Wine, Dessert Wine, Dry

Apparent Attenuation - A measurement of the degree of conversion of sugar to alcohol and CO2. It is a measure of the change in density of the beverage during fermentation and is expressed as a percentage. Apparent attenuation can be calculated with the equation (OG - FG) / OG. Attenuation can be affected by the fermentability of the sugars present.
See also: Attenuation, Original Gravity (OG), Final Gravity (FG), Residual Sugar, Fermentability, Density

Appellation - A naming convention that has legally protected requirements to be used. The requirements for using an appellation are often based on the location where the product was made, but any type or number of restrictions can be placed. Any product that does not meet the requirements can not legally call itself that name.
See also: Champagne, Trappist, Steam Beer

Applejack - A highly alcoholic beverage made from apples. Hard cider is allowed to partially freeze, then the ice crystals are removed. This process concentrates both the alcohol content and the apple flavor. Applejack was very popular in colonial America.
See also: Distillation, Fractional Freezing, Cider

Aroma - The smell emanating from a beverage. The aroma can have a significant impact on the overall enjoyment of a beverage and can affect the perception of flavor. Aromas and flavors of a beverage are derived from the ingredients, fermentation conditions and storage conditions.
See also: Flavor, Bouquet, Balance, Essential Oil

Astringency - A sensation of mouth-puckering dryness or bitterness that comes predominately from tannins. Astringency in a wine helps to balance the sweetness of the fruit, but too much can cause a harsh, unpleasant bitterness. In beer, astringency is almost always considered a fault and usually comes from poor mash conditions or excessively heating the grains.
See also: Tannin, Balance, Mash

Attenuation - The percentage of sugars consumed during fermentation. Different yeast strains have different attenuation ratings, which has a notable impact on the flavor of a finished drink. Higher attenuation means more sugars are consumed, leaving a dry and lighter beverage with more alcohol. A lower attenuation leaves more sugar behind, resulting in more body and sweetness. Attenuation can be enhanced by making a yeast starter to ensure a large number of healthy yeast cells.
See also: Apparent Attenuation, Yeast Starter, Residual Sugar, Fermentation

Autolysis - The break down of yeast`s cell wall structure. This occurs when yeast run out of nutrients, die and begin to decompose. Live yeast may begin to cannibalize each other causing notable off-flavors. Removing the trub from a beverage after primary fermentation has finished can help prevent autolysis from occurring.
See also: Trub, Secondary Fermentation

Bacteria - Microorganisms that are present on most surfaces and in the air. These organisms consume some substances and generate various by-products. Certain bacteria strains are used to create products such as sour beer or vinegar, but unintentional inoculation of bacteria is the number one cause of spoiled beverages. Some bacteria strains are aerobic, requiring oxygen to live, while some strains are not.
See also: By-Product, Sour, Aerobic, Anaerobic

Balance - The degree to which contrasting flavors counteract each other. A well balanced beverage leaves a rounder and more complete impression, whereas an unbalanced beverage can taste two-dimensional or have an excessive amount of a single flavor. Balance between sweetness and bitterness/acidity are of primary concern, but all aspects of a drink affect each other to some degree. A beverage that does not allow one attribute to overwhelm the others is considered to be well balanced. The term is also used to describe whether a beverage is tilted more towards one flavor aspect or another.
See also: Sweetness, Perceived Bitterness, BU:GU Ratio, Acidity

Balling - A unit for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. One degree Balling is the equivalent of 1 gram sucrose in 100 grams of water. °Balling, °Brix and °Plato are nearly identical, and are used interchangeably for all practical purposes. One degree Balling is roughly equivalent to four gravity points (or a specific gravity of 1.004) at lower gravities, but this calculation becomes less accurate at gravities higher than 1.050.
See also: Specific Gravity, Hydrometer

Barley - A cereal grain that is grown all over the world. Malted barley is one of the primary ingredients in beer making, providing the majority of fermentable sugars that become alcohol. Barley that has been kilned and roasted to different degrees create a wide range of flavors.
See also: Grain, Malt, Sugar, Endosperm, Aleurone Layer

Barm - The foam or froth on top of a fermenting beer, also known as Kraeusen. The word barm also refers to the foamy head on a glass of beer. It can also be used as a verb, meaning to pitch the yeast.
See also: Kraeusen, Head, Pitching, Yeast

Barrel - A large wooden vessel used to store fermented beverages during the aging process. Alcohol from the beverage will absorb different flavors from the barrel based on what variety of wood it is made from and whether the wood has been toasted.
See also: Cask, Fermenter, Aging, Vanillin

Base - A chemical compound with a pH greater than 7. Bases affect the overall pH of any solution. By altering the pH, they impact fermentation and mashing reactions. Bases can be neutralized by adding acidic salts.
See also: Alkalinity, pH, Balance, Water Salts

Base Grains - Malted grain that has not been kilned to a high degree. These grains still have enough amylase enzyme to convert starches into fermentable sugar. All-grain beer recipes are mostly base grains, with only a small percentage of the total grain bill being specialty varieties. Base grains are lightly kilned, leaving a light color and not much roast or caramel flavor.
See also: Specialty Grains, Mash, Grain, Amylase, All-Grain Beer

Batch Sparge - A form of sparging where the sparge water is added to the grains separately from the mash water. After the mash is complete, all the wort is drained from the tun. The sparge water is then added and allowed to sit on the grains for at least 15 minutes, absorbing any sugars that were left behind. This new, lower gravity wort is then drained from the tun and mixed with the initial runnings in the boil kettle.
See also: Sparge, Continuous Sparge, Brew in a Bag, Mash

Beer - Any beverage made by fermenting a wort made of malted grains and seasoned with hops. A beer is generally classified as either an ale or a lager. Pure deliciousness.
See also: Craft Beer, Ale, Lager, Wort, Fermentation, Alcoholic Beverage

Beer Barrel (BBL) - A standard unit of measurement used by the American brewing industry. One barrel is equivalent to 31 US gallons. The beer barrel is used for most professional brewing equipment, including kegs. A full size keg is called a 1/2 barrel and holds 15.5 gallons of beer.
See also: Keg

Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) - An organization dedicated to promoting knowledge and appreciation of beer, cider and mead styles. They work to spread education about various types of fermented beverages and the differences between them, helping people to evaluate and describe what makes each one unique. The BJCP also sanctions competitions, certify judges for evaluating alcoholic beverages and help to develop standards for describing and evaluating each distinct form of alcoholic beverage.
See also: American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC), European Brewing Convention (EBC)
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Beerstone - A hard scale composed mostly of calcium oxalate. Beerstone can build up in fermentation vessels and kegs, creating a haven for bacteria. It is difficult to remove with most cleaners, but can be effectively removed with certain acid based cleaners.
See also: Cleaner, Fermenter, Keg

Belgian Lace - A pattern of foam that clings to the side of a glass as beer is drunk from it. This foam forms intricate patterns, giving it the name lace. Belgian Lace is formed from foam that comes off the head of a beer and sticks to the glass wall. Beer with poor head retention, or beer served in a dirty glass will not form Belgian Lace, and a lack of this lace is used by some as a means to judge beer quality.
See also: Foam, Head, Head Retention

Bentonite - An inorganic fining agent made of diatomaceous earth. Bentonite is a popular clarifier used in wine making.
See also: Finings, Clarifier

Beta Acids - An acid found in hops that acts as a bittering agent. Beta acids are much less soluble than alpha acids, so their bittering potential is much lower. Many hop suppliers do not list beta acids on their packaging, since variations in beta acid content has a negligible effect on the finished beer.
See also: Hops, Alpha Acids, Bittering

Beta Amylase - One of the two primary enzymes that convert starches into sugars during a mash. Beta amylase works by breaking down a chain of amylose from the ends, picking off single sugar molecules one at a time. Beta amylase cannot break down amylopectins near the branches, so it needs assistance from alpha amylase to reach these parts. Beta amylase works best at temperatures between 135 and 150 degrees.
See also: Amylase, Alpha Amylase, Mash, Starch, Sugar, Amylopectin

Beta Glucans - A gum-like substance that is naturally present in some types of grain. Large amounts of beta glucans in a mash can cause difficulty with the lauter because they tend to cause blockages that can prevent the wort from flowing through the grain bed.
See also: Grain, Lautering, Glucanase, Glucan Rest

Bittering - The act of imparting bitterness to a beverage. Bitterness in a drink balances the sweetness of malt or fruit so that a drink isn`t cloyingly sweet and unpalatable. Beer is bittered using hops and wine is bittered using tannins.
See also: Hops, Balance, Tannin, Cloying

Bittering Hops - A general term for hops that are added early in the boil. These hops boil for a long time, imparting a high amount of bitterness to the finished beer.
See also: Hops, Finishing Hops, Bitterness, Dual-Purpose Hops, Hopping

Bitterness - A sharp, pungent flavor that plays against the sweetness of a beverage. Bitterness prevents a drink from being cloyingly sweet, and can add a distinctiveness or zip. Bitterness comes from a variety of sources, including acids, herbs and hops.
See also: Perceived Bitterness, Balance, Acid, Hops, Cloying, Gruit

Blending - The act of mixing two or more beverages together to create one with greater balance. Blending is a common practice in commercial wineries and breweries, since it helps to promote consistency between batches.
See also: Balance, Amelioration, Fortification, Cuvèe

Blow-Off - A type of venting setup consisting of a tube that exits from the fermenter and is submerged in water. A blow-off tube not only vents CO2 like an airlock does, but allows excess fermentation material to be removed as well. Blow-off systems are much less likely to clog when the kraeusen rises all the way to the top of the fermenter.
See also: Airlock, Kraeusen

Body - The amount of perceived thickness or weight of a beverage on the mouth. Thicker, heavier drinks are said to have a fuller body. Body is affected by the amount of alcohol, residual sugars and dissolved carbon dioxide in the beverage. Adding unfermentable dextrins to a brew will increase its body.
See also: Mouthfeel, Alcohol, Residual Sugar, Carbonation, Dextrin

Boil - The process of heating a liquid until it begins to evaporate. Boiling serves many functions for beer makers such as pasteurizing the wort, isomerizing the alpha acids of hops and promoting a good hot break. Boiling also condenses the wort, increasing its potential alcohol, and promotes Maillard reactions that increase bread-like malt flavors. Excessive boiling can drive away the aromatic qualities of some ingredients.
See also: Pasteurization, Isomerization, Hot Break, Maillard Reaction, Brew Kettle

Bomber - Slang term for a 22 ounce bottle of beer. Nearly twice the volume of a standard beer bottle, bombers are more likely to be sold one at a time than their smaller brothers.
See also: Bottle, Beer, Growler

Bottle - A glass container made to store beverages. Bottles come in various shapes and sizes and have different methods of sealing. Beer and Cider is usually packaged in 12 oz amber bottles or 22 oz amber bombers. Wine and mead is usually packaged in 750 ml bottles that are sealed with corks.
See also: Bomber, Swing-Top Bottle, Bottle Caps, Corks, Bottle Capper, Corker

Bottle Capper - A device used to press metal caps onto the tops of bottles. A bell-shaped metal piece is forced over the top of the cap, crimping the cap`s sides down around the edge of the bottle. The crimped sides hold the cap in place and keep the bottle sealed from the outside air. A bottle capper is necessary equipment to use crown cap style bottles, but is not used with corked bottles or swing-top bottles.
See also: Bottle Caps, Bottle, Corker, Swing-Top Bottle
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Bottle Caps - Also known as crown caps, these are metal caps used to seal certain types of bottles. These caps are pressed into place with a bottle capper, which crimps their sides around the bottle`s edge. The crimped sides hold the cap in place and keep the bottle sealed from the outside air. A bottle capper is necessary equipment to use crown caps.
See also: Bottle Capper, Bottle, Corks, Swing-Top Bottle
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Bottom-Fermenting - Refers to types of yeast that do not tend to gather at the top of a fermenting beer. Lager strains are generally bottom-fermenting.
See also: Lager Yeast, Yeast, Fermentation

Bouquet - The perception of a beverages smell created by the aroma. The bouquet can be affected by the ingredients, fermentation conditions or aging processes. The bouquet can have a significant impact on the overall enjoyment of a beverage.
See also: Aroma, Aging

Braggot - Also known as bracket or brackett, this is a fermented beverage that uses both honey and malted grains as important ingredients. The honey and grains are used at nearly equal amounts, combining the flavor aspects of both beer and mead.
See also: Beer, Mead

Brettanomyces - A genus of single-celled yeasts that ferment sugar and produce a wide range of "funky" flavors. Often referred to simply as "brett", these strains produce flavors that can be described as leathery, barnyard or horse blanket. These flavors are desirable in Lambics and many farmhouse styles, but are considered a flaw in many other styles.
See also: Yeast, Farmhouse

Brew Kettle - A vessel, usually made of stainless steel, that is used in the production of beer. Kettles are used to boil wort, which has many benefits to the final product.
See also: Boil, Wort

Brewer`s Association (BA) - A coalition pf craft breweries, wholesalers and retailers that promote craft beer throughout the United States. The Brewer`s Association lobbies for legal change to benefit craft beer, helps to educate the public about craft beer, assists in setting up brewing guilds and plans many craft beer related events such as the Great American Beer Festival.
See also: American Homebrewer`s Association (AHA), Craft Beer, Brewery

Brewery - A company that produces beer on a commercial scale. Breweries vary greatly in their size and how much beer they make in a year. Most breweries have on site tasting rooms where the public can sample their products.
See also: Craft Brewery, Contract Brewing, Brewpub, Beer

Brewpub - A brewery and restaurant combination. Beer is brewed on site and sold primarily at the restaurant. Some states limit a brewpub`s ability to sell beer for off-site consumption, but in many states a brewpub is allowed to fill growlers to take home.
See also: Brewery, Public House (Pub), Growler

Brix - A unit for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. One degree Brix is the equivalent of 1 gram sucrose in 100 grams of water. °Balling, °Brix and °Plato are nearly identical, and are used interchangeably for all practical purposes. One degree Brix is roughly equivalent to four gravity points (or a specific gravity of 1.004) at lower gravities, but this calculation becomes less accurate at gravities higher than 1.050.
See also: Specific Gravity, Hydrometer

BU:GU Ratio - The ratio of IBUs (bittering units) to original gravity (gravity units) in a beer. Since the sweetness of malt balances against the bitterness of hops, knowing the relation between the two can create a better estimate of how much perceived bitterness the brew will have. Beers with a higher BU:GU ratio will have more of a bitter taste.
See also: Perceived Bitterness, International Bittering Units (IBUs), Sweetness, Balance

Buffer - A chemical that acts to stabilize the pH of a solution. Most water salts have slight buffering capacity and many compounds found in malt will buffer a mash to a pH in the low-mid 5 range.
See also: pH, Water Salts

Bung - A stopper used to seal barrels or carboys. Bungs are usually made of rubber or wood and may be solid, or have a hole drilled into them to fit an airlock. Drilled bungs allow an airlock to fit into the neck of a carboy. Bungs used for barrels were traditionally made of wood.
See also: Carboy, Airlock, Barrel

By-Product - Chemical compounds that are formed as a result of the mashing, boiling or fermentation of beverages. By-products often have distinct flavors and aromas that can be considered desirable in some cases, or flaws in others. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are by-products of the fermentation process.
See also: Alcohol, Carbon Dioxide, Esters, Diketone, Off-Flavor, Precursor

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) - A mineral salt found in water. This salt is sometimes added to a beer to increase calcium and carbonate ion content, raising its pH. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in many acid reducing medicines.
See also: Calcium, Carbonate, Ion, pH

Calcium Sulfate (CaSO4) - A mineral salt found in water. Also known as gypsum, this salt is sometimes added to a beer to increase its calcium and sulfate ion content. Adding gypsum to a brew will lower mash pH and emphasize hop crispness.
See also: Calcium, Sulfate, Ion

Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) - Founded in 1971, CAMRA is a consumer campaign promoting high quality beer, local pubs and consumers` rights. Centered in Great Britain, this organization promotes the continued creation of real ale, a traditional British type of beer that exemplifies the best qualities of local pub life.
See also: Real Ale, Public House (Pub)
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Carbohydrate - A biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. Sugars and starches are both carbohydrates commonly found in grains. Long chain carbohydrates, such as starch, are not fermentable, but can be broken down into fermentable sugars by diastatic enzymes during a mash.
See also: Sugar, Starch, Diastatic Power, Mash

Carbon Dioxide - A gas which is produced naturally by yeast as a by-product of fermentation. This is what is being vented out of an airlock during primary fermentation. For still beverages like most wines and meads, carbon dioxide is intentionally removed from the drink by gently agitating it. For carbonated drinks like beer or sparkling wines and ciders, carbon dioxide is intentionally present in the final product and gives the beverage an effervescent zip. Carbon dioxide is abbreviated CO2.
See also: Carbonation, Conditioning, Sparkling Beverage, Still Beverage

Carbonation - The amount of dissolved carbon dioxide present in a beverage. Carbonation gives beer and soda their bubbly mouthfeel. High amounts of carbonation create a drink that is fizzy and can have an acidic bite. Carbonation also refers to the act of dissolving CO2 into a beverage, either by bottle conditioning or through force carbonation.
See also: Carbonic Acid, Mouthfeel, Conditioning, Force Carbonation, Carbon Dioxide

Carbonic Acid - A chemical compound formed when carbon dioxide is dissolved into a fluid. In small amounts, carbonic acid adds a pleasant zip to a drink that balances out sweetness. In large doses, carbonic acid can have a metallic flavor that is very unpleasant. Attempting to rush carbonation by shaking kegs at high pressures can cause excessive amounts of carbonic acid formation, and create a `tin can` flavor in kegged beverages.
See also: Carbonation, Force Carbonation

Carboy - A large bottle with a narrow opening at the top that has anywhere from 1 to 14 gallons capacity. Carboys are commonly used as vessels for either primary or secondary fermentation. Glass is better at keeping away the outside air than plastic is, so it is recommended to use glass carboys for secondary fermentations.
See also: Primary Fermentation, Secondary Fermentation, Fermenter, Bung

Cask - A large vessel used for serving beer. Casks can be made from either wood or stainless steel and typically employ gravity to pour the beer, rather than pushing it with carbon dioxide. Casks are popular for naturally carbonated beers such as real ales that allow for a significant change in flavor as the balance between beer and head space shifts. They are usually sealed with two bungs, one at the top and one on the side. The cask is tapped by driving a faucet into the side bung using a hammer.
See also: Real Ale, Head Space, Conditioning, Bung, Draught Beer

Cellaring - The process of storing an alcoholic beverage at 50 to 55 degrees. Long term storage at cooler temperatures promotes chemical changes that affect a drinks flavor, usually having a mellowing effect. Cellaring can be done anywhere with the right temperature conditions, but is traditionally done in an underground chamber beneath a house.
See also: Aging, Lagering, Cold Crashing

Cellulose - A compound that is similar to starch, but with different organization of the molecules. Cellulose cannot be broken down by amylase enzymes during the mash.
See also: Starch, Amylase

Champagne - An appellation that denotes a sparkling wine made in the Champagne region of France. Many people use the word to mean any sparkling wine, but in most countries it is illegal to label a product as champagne unless it comes from the Champagne region of France and is naturally carbonated in the bottle. Champagnes are traditionally carbonated with bottle conditioning, using a process of riddling and disgorging.
See also: Conditioning, Riddling, Disgorging

Channeling - When a grain bed becomes compacted during the lauter, wort will be restricted in how it can flow through the grist. If the wort only flows through certain parts of the grain bed, then these channels will be the only portion that sugars are being extracted from. Other sections of the grist will not have their sugars picked up by the wort, reducing extract efficiency.
See also: Compaction, Lautering, Grist, Efficiency

Chill Haze - A haze that is caused by the partial precipitation of protein and tannin compounds in a beer. Chill haze dissipates as the beer warms up, but can become permanent if the beer changes temperature too many times. Chill haze does not affect the flavor of a beer, and can be prevented by sufficiently removing proteins and tannins before fermentation. A strong hot and cold break will help keep these to a minimum.
See also: Protein, Tannin, Hot Break, Cold Break, Haze, Cold Crashing

Chill Plate - A type of heat exchanger made of stainless steel plates. Hot wort and cold water are pumped through the chiller in opposite directions. The plates are arranged so that the two fluids run side by side without allowing them to mix. This type of setup maximizes the amount of heat transferred between the wort and the cold water and is the fastest way to cool wort to pitching temperature. A pump is needed to move wort through the chiller.
See also: Immersion Chiller, Counter-Flow Chiller, Ice Bath, Heat Exchanger
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Cider - Unfiltered, unsweetened juice pressed from apples of any variety. The terms `apple cider`, `sweet cider` and `soft cider` refer to unfermented and non-alcoholic juice. The terms `hard cider` or (in most of the world) just `cider` are used for an alcoholic beverage made from apple cider. Additional fermentable sugars are often added to hard cider to increase the alcohol content. Hard cider has a broad range of sweetness ranging from sugary to very crisp and dry.
See also: Alcoholic Beverage, Applejack, Pomace

Clarifier - Any substance used to improve the clarity of a finished beverage. Most clarifiers acts as fining agents, which enhance the process of racking.
See also: Finings, Clarity, Racking, Bentonite

Clarify - The process of removing minute particles suspended in a beverage, leaving it much clearer looking and more attractive. This is commonly done by allowing the particles to settle at the bottom of the fermenter, then racking the beverage off of it. Beverages can also be filtered to achieve great clarity in less time.
See also: Clarity, Finings, Racking, Filtration, Haze, Turbidity

Clarity - The degree to which haze causing particles have been removed from a beverage. Drinks with high clarity can be read through, where drinks with a low clarity appear murky, cloudy and turbid. There are several techniques for improving the clarity of a homebrewed beverage.
See also: Haze, Clarify, Finings, Racking, Filtration, Turbidity

Clean - To remove debris and other unwanted material from equipment. Cleaning gets rid of the visible stains that may build up on equipment during storage or use, but does not remove microbial organisms. Cleaning and sanitizing are not the same thing.
See also: Sanitize, Sterilize

Cleaner - A chemical compound used to break up solid contaminates so they can be washed away more easily. Cleaners are often either oxidizing formulas or alkaline based chemicals, although acid based cleaners can be used to remove specific deposits such as beerstone. Cleaners and Sanitizers are not the same thing and aren`t meant to be used interchangeably.
See also: Sanitizer, Beerstone

Closed Fermentation - Fermentation performed in a sealed container with an airlock or blow-off. The airtight conditions prevent outside air from contacting the fermented beverage and minimize the risk of contamination from bacteria or wild yeast.
See also: Open Fermentation, Fermentation, Wild Yeast, Bacteria, Airlock, Blow-Off

Co-Humulone - One of the three primary alpha acids that provide bitterness to a beer when boiled. Co-humulone is usually the second most common of the three, although in some varieties ad-humulone may be more prevalent. Many brewers believe that co-humulone creates a harsher bitterness than humulone does, and seek out hop varieties with a low percentage of co-humulone. Some of the hop varieties that are traditionally prized for their flavoring capabilities, including the noble types, have low co-humulone levels.
See also: Alpha Acids, Humulone, Ad-Humulone, Bittering

Cold Break - The precipitation of proteins in a wort during the cooling process. The faster the wort cools from boiling to room temperature, the more the proteins will clump together and fall out of suspension. A good cold break will help prevent haziness in the final beer and improve long term stability.
See also: Protein, Hot Break, Chill Haze, Clarity

Colloids - Microscopic substances suspended in a fluid, but not dissolved. Colloids left in a beverage can cause haze, but are broken down by boiling. Colloids are said to be partially responsible for the rich aromas found in honey.
See also: Aroma, Pentosans, Hot Break

Color - The amount of hue and pigment in a beverage. Most of the color in a beer or wine is derived from the fermentable ingredients. Dark roast grains add color to a beer and red grapes or dark fruits add color to a wine. The color of a beverage is affected by its clarity, appearing less brilliant if there is haze present.
See also: Standard Reference Method (SRM), Clarity

Commercial Keg - A type of keg used in professional brewing operations. This is the kind of keg you would buy from a store or serve from at a bar or restaurant. They are commonly referred to by their size in relation to a beer barrel (31 gallons), with a full size keg being 1/2 barrel or 15.5 gallons. Commercial kegs have a single port at the top of the keg to attach a coupler, which must match the style of keg to work properly.
See also: Soda Keg, Keg, Keg Coupler, Draught System, Beer Barrel (BBL)

Compaction - The tendency of a grain bed to compress during lautering. As wort is drawn through it, the grist is pulled down by suction, forming a tighter and denser mass. A large level of compaction can cause channeling or lead to a stuck sparge.
See also: Lautering, Channeling, Stuck Sparge, Grist

Concentrate - Grape or other fruit juice that has had most of its water removed. Concentrates take up less space and weigh less than full juices, making them easier to package for sale. Wine makers will often buy concentrates so they will not have to do the added steps of crushing whole fruit and extracting the juices themselves.
See also: Fruit, Juice, Press, Wine

Conditioning - Also known as natural carbonation, this is a term for continued fermentation inside a bottle or cask. Yeast that is still active after packaging consume the remaining sugars and create carbon dioxide. The CO2 is then trapped in the bottle or cask and reabsorbed by the beer to create carbonation.
See also: Carbonation, Priming, Kraeusening, Cask, Gyle, Force Carbonation

Connoisseur - A person who has extensive knowledge on a particular subject, especially in relation to the details, technique, or principles of an art. They appreciate the subtleties of that subject and are competent to act as a critical judge. The term only describes the extent of a person`s knowledge and does not imply anything about their attitude towards differing opinions or people with less knowledge than them.
See also: Enthusiast, Snob

Continuous Sparge - Also known as fly sparging, this is a sparging method where the sparge water is added at the same time as the mash wort is being drained. Wort is slowly drained from the mash tun and into the boil kettle. Simultaneously, hot sparge water is slowly sprinkled on top of the grain bed. The sparge water constantly flows downward, absorbing any leftover sugars on the way. Continuous sparging tends to provide a higher efficiency than other methods, but requires more careful monitoring to watch out for a stuck sparge.
See also: Sparge, Batch Sparge, Brew in a Bag, Efficiency, Stuck Sparge

Contract Brewing - A business model where one brewery hires another to produce some or all of its beer. Sales, distribution and marketing are done by the brewery which owns the name of the beer, while the production and packaging of the beer itself is done by the company they have contracted with. Contract brewing is often done by small craft breweries to reduce initial equipment costs, but much of the quality control is taken out of their hands.
See also: Craft Brewery

Corker - A device used to press corks into the tops of wine bottles. A plunger attached to a lever forces the corks down through a small opening and into the bottle. The cork then expands to fill the space, creating a good seal. Some corkers have teeth that squeeze the cork before pushing it in, allowing for the use of larger corks that create tighter seals. A corker is necessary equipment for inserting most types of corks.
See also: Corks, Shrink Capsules, Bottle, Bottle Capper, Swing-Top Bottle

Corks - Soft, cylinder shaped plugs that are used to seal wine bottles. Most corks are pushed into the bottle with a corker, they then expand to fill any gaps and create a good seal. There are types of corks that can be inserted by hand, but these do not create as good of a seal and are generally recommended for short term storage only. Corks are traditionally made from either from natural cork material (hence the name), but versions made from synthetic materials have become available.
See also: Corker, Bottle, Shrink Capsules, Bottle Caps, Swing-Top Bottle

Corn Sugar - Another name for the glucose sugar molecule. Corn sugar is highly fermentable and is commonly used in priming.
See also: Sugar, Priming, Glucose, Fermentability, Dextrose

Counter-Flow Chiller - A type of heat exchanger made from hose and copper coil. The coil is run through the inside of the hose, creating a tube with two sets of walls. Hot wort is pumped or gravity fed through the coil, and cold water is pumped through the hose in the other direction. The cold water absorbs heat from the wort through the copper pipe, and is either dumped or saved for cleaning. Running the wort and water in opposite directions helps to maximize the amount of heat transferred, and makes this method a faster way to chill than immersion chillers. A counter-flow chiller also typically uses less water than an immersion chiller.
See also: Immersion Chiller, Chill Plate, Ice Bath, Heat Exchanger

Craft Beer - Beer made by a craft brewery. Craft beers tend to be made using new and innovative processes and ingredients or with traditional means focused on high quality. Craft beer ranges widely on its color, flavor, body and alcohol content. Some are thin and easy drinking, others are thick, sweet and chewy.
See also: Craft Brewery, Color, Flavor, Body, Alcohol

Craft Brewery - A small, independent brewery that makes craft beer. Craft breweries are usually, but not always, more focused on making quality products of full and unique flavor than they are in mass-marketed sales. Craft brewers tend to make beers using traditional, high-quality means or with new and innovative processes. The Brewer`s Association definition of craft brewery includes an annual production of 6 million barrels of beer or less and less than 25 percent of the craft brewery owned or controlled by a company that is not a craft brewery itself.
See also: Craft Beer, Brewery, Beer Barrel (BBL), Brewer`s Association (BA)

Cuvèe - A French term meaning tank or vat. It is used on wine bottles to denote a wine that came from a specific batch. For discerning producers, marking the specific batch is often a means of denoting a batch of wine that is superior in quality to their normal offerings. The term cuvèe is also used to mean a blending of batches. It could refer to a blend of old and new wines used to make champagne, or blended ales such as gueuze. The term can also be used to mean the initial runnings of a grape pressing, which is believed to be superior and less coarse. The term is often put on wine and beer labels to evoke a sense of superior quality, but there is no regulation to this practice.
See also: Wine, Blending, Champagne

Decant - To gently pour a beverage from its storage container into a serving vessel. Any sediment in the bottom of the storage vessel is left behind, leaving the drink clearer and more attractive looking.
See also: Sediment, Flocculation, Clarity

Decoction - A type of step mashing where different temperature rests are reached by removing part of the mash, heating it, then returning it to the tun. This type of mash creates high amounts of Maillard flavors and is often used in traditional German bocks.
See also: Mash, Step Mash, Rest, Maillard Reaction, Mash Tun

Density - The measure of the weight of any given solution compared to its volume. Specific gravity is a measurement of wort or must density and is used to estimate the amount of dissolved solids (mostly sugars) in those solutions.
See also: Specific Gravity, Hydrometer

Dessert Wine - A sweet wine meant to be served either as or with a desert course. These wines have a lot of residual sugars in them, giving the wine a full body and pronounced sweetness.
See also: Residual Sugar, Wine, Aperitif

Dextrin - A complex sugar molecule that is left over from the enzyme conversion of a mash. Dextrins are too large to be consumed by yeast, so they do not ferment into alcohol. Dextrins add body to a finished beer, affecting its mouthfeel. They are carbohydrates composed of four or more glucose molecules.
See also: Residual Sugar, Body, Amylodextrin, Mouthfeel

Dextrose - Another name for the glucose sugar molecule. Dextrose is a highly fermentable sugar commonly used in priming.
See also: Sugar, Priming, Glucose, Fermentability, Corn Sugar

Diacetyl - A natural by-product of fermentation that has a buttery or butterscotch like flavor. Diacetyl is usually cleaned up by the yeast after primary fermentation has finished. The presence of diacetyl in a finished beer is usually considered a flaw, but small amounts are considered acceptable or desirable in certain styles.
See also: Secondary Fermentation, By-Product, Off-Flavor, Diketone

Diastase - Also called diastatic enzyme, diastase is a type of enzyme that converts starch into sugar. Amylase is a type of diastase that is found in malted grain and activated during a mash.
See also: Amylase, Mash, Enzyme, Diastatic Power

Diastatic Power - The amount of diastatic enzyme potential (from amylase) that a malt contains. The higher a grains diastatic power, the more enzymes it contains and the better it will be at converting starches into fermentable sugar during the mash. Often measured in degrees Lintner, a malt with a diastatic power of 35 or more is capable of converting all its own starches.
See also: Mash, Amylase, Lintner, Sugar

Diketone - Volatile aromatic compounds that can be detected at very low concentrations. Diacetyl is a diketone that causes a buttery off-flavor. Diketones are usually by-products of yeast or bacteria metabolism.
See also: Diacetyl, By-Product, Off-Flavor, Volatile

Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS) - A chemical compound, naturally found in malt, that contains sulfur. At low concentrations, it adds the crisp flavor common to lagers. At higher concentrations, DMS adds a flavor similar to creamed corn or cabbage. These higher concentrations are considered a flaw and brewers take care to reduce DMS down to acceptable levels when making lagers.
See also: Sulfer, Lager, Off-Flavor, Malt

Disaccharide - A sugar molecule composed of two monosaccharides joined together. Maltose, Sucrose and Lactose are examples of disaccharides.
See also: Monosaccharide, Trisaccharide, Maltose, Glucose, Lactose, Sugar

Disgorging - The process of removing sediment from a champagne bottle before adding the dosage. This is done after the champagne has conditioned in the bottle, which generates a large amount of sediment, and riddling has been performed to collect the sediment into the bottle`s neck. The neck is frozen, and the now solid yeast plug is removed. Any spilled wine is replaced and a dosage is often added at this time.
See also: Conditioning, Dosage, Riddling, Champagne, Sparkling Beverage

Distillation - Using physical means to concentrate alcohol content in a beverage that has finished fermenting. Distillation can produce beverages with ABV much higher than fermentation alone. Because distillation can also concentrate fusel alcohols to toxic levels, a permit is required to distill alcohol legally.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Still, Fractional Freezing, Fusel Alcohols

Draught Beer - Also spelled draft, this is any beer served from kegs, casks or tanks rather than from cans or bottles. Draught beer is usually considered to be fresher than bottled beer and closer to what the brewer originally intended. Beer from a growler is sometimes considered draught beer if it is consumed very soon after filling.
See also: Draught System, Cask, Keg, Can, Bottle, Growler

Draught System - An equipment set-up designed to pour draught beer. A draught system consists of regulated CO2 tanks that pressurize kegs to a specific level and push beer from the keg and out through a faucet. These systems maintain the proper pressure level inside the keg, preventing the beer from going flat. These systems are the easiest method for serving large quantities of beer and can also be used to fill growlers.
See also: Draught Beer, Kegs, Growler

Dry - A term used to describe a beverage with little residual sugar. The lack of sugar prevents the drink from having much sweetness, and allows tart or bitter flavors to shine through more.
See also: Residual Sugar, Balance

Dry Hopping - The act of adding hops to a beer after primary fermentation has slowed down. The vigorous production of CO2 during primary would drive away some of the volatile hop aromatics, so adding the hops after primary has finished helps to preserve aroma in the finished product. Dry hopping adds a lot of hop aroma and flavor to a beer, without adding much bitterness.
See also: Hops, Aroma, Flavor, Bitterness, Primary Fermentation, Hopping

Dry Malt Extract (DME) - Malt extract that has had some of its water content removed. A manufacturer performs the mashing process to create the malt extract, then uses special processes to dehydrate it as much as possible while minimizing flavor changes. This pre-made wort is then reconstituted by homebrewers, removing the need for them to perform a mash themselves. Brewing with extract is much easier than brewing with grain, but limits some of a homebrewer`s control. Dry malt extract has been condensed down to only around 3% water content and comes as a dry powder. It stores very well and will show minimal change in flavor and color as it sits on the shelf.
See also: Liquid Malt Extract (LME), Extract, Mash, Malt
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Dual-Purpose Hops - A term referring to hops that are used for both bittering and aromatic uses. It is often used to describe hop varieties that make good choices for either of these purposes.
See also: Bittering Hops, Finishing Hops, Hops

Dunkel - A German word meaning dark in color, Munich Dunkels are a variety of dark colored, malt accented lager beers.
See also: Helles, Lager
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Efficiency - The amount of soluble compounds removed from malted grains during the mash and sparge. Usually expressed as a percentage, efficiency is a comparison of the gravity of freshly lautered wort with the theoretical maximum gravity of wort made from the same grain bill. Efficiency tends to be relatively consistent across worts that are made on the same mashing system and use the same techniques. The higher a mash efficiency is, the more sugar has been obtained from the grains and the more alcohol will be produced in the end. Homebrewers typically achieve efficiencies around the 70% range, while professional brewers are often in the 80-85% range. When writing beer recipes, knowing the efficiency of your system will help determine the amount of grains needed to achieve a target alcohol level.
See also: Extract, Mash, Lauter, Sparge

Eighteenth Amendment - The amendment to the US Constitution that established prohibition. This is the law change that made the production and sale of alcohol illegal in the United States. The 18th amendment did not prohibit the private possession or consumption of alcohol, allowing for many loopholes. It went into effect on January 17, 1920 and was repealed by the 21st amendment on December 5th, 1933.
See also: Prohibition, Twenty First Amendment

Endosperm - The nutritious tissue of a seed. The endosperm consists of carbohydrate, proteins and lipids. Starches from the endosperm are converted by amylase enzyme into fermentable sugars.
See also: Carbohydrate, Protein, Lipid, Amylase, Sugar, Aleurone Layer

Enthusiast - Someone who greatly enjoys wine, beer or other fermented beverages. They will gladly discuss the topic with anyone with the goal of expanding knowledge and having fun. An enthusiast does not judge or look down on someone who does not share their particular views and is open to differing opinions. They may or may not have extensive knowledge on their subject of choice, but are always eager to learn.
See also: Snob, Connoisseur

Enzymes - Protein based compounds that cause chemical reactions. Amylase enzyme is the most prominent enzyme in brewing, converting starches into fermentable sugars. Several other enzymes also work to affect changes to beer and wort, especially during the mash.
See also: Diastase, Amylase, Mash

Essential Oil - The volatile aromatic compounds found in hops, fruits and other ingredients. These compounds provide a great deal of flavor and aroma to a finished beverage, but can be driven off by excessive boiling or poor storage. The oils in a hop cone are found in the lupulin glands.
See also: Aroma, Hops, Boil, Lupulin Glands, Volatile

Esters - Aromatic chemical compounds formed as a by-product of yeast metabolism. Esters typically smell fruity, and can be considered a positive trait in some beer styles. In other styles, a strong ester flavor is considered a fault. Ester production tends to be higher when fermenting with ale yeasts or at high temperatures. Many Belgian beers get their strong fruit flavors from the use of a high ester producing yeast.
See also: Yeast, By-Product, Ale Yeast, Fatty Acid

Ethanol - A type of alcohol commonly found in fermented beverages. This is the form of alcohol that gets you drunk, while other types can be toxic in relatively small doses. Ethanol is formed as a by-product of yeast metabolism.
See also: Alcohol, Fusel Alcohols, Methanol, By-Product

European Bitterness Units (EBU) - A unit of beer bitterness used in Europe. EBUs are theoretically equivalent to IBUs, but the method used to measure them is slightly different. A beer with a higher EBU value will generally be more bitter than a beer with low EBUs.
See also: Bittering, International Bittering Units (IBUs)

European Brewing Convention (EBC) - An organization that represents the technical and scientific aspects of brewing in Europe. EBC is also a unit of color based on the absorption of a specific wavelength of light through a standard sized sample, which is commonly used throughout Europe. This is the same testing basis as the SRM scale used by the American Society of Brewing Chemists, but uses a different sample size. 1 EBC is equivalent to 1.97 SRM.
See also: Standard Reference Method (SRM), American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC), Color

Export-Style - Any beer produced for the purpose of being exported to another country. These beers are often, but not necessarily, made stronger or hoppier to survive long shipping times.

Extract - The soluble compounds removed from malted grains during the mash and sparge. These compounds form the sugar basis for fermentation and contain many of the flavoring elements. Pre-made extract can be purchased for homebrewers that do not want to perform their own mash.
See also: Liquid Malt Extract (LME), Dry Malt Extract (DME), Sugar, Mash, Extraction

Extract Beer - A beer that is made using pre-made malt extracts. The concentrated wort extracts make brewing much simpler, since the mash process can be skipped, but are more expensive and offer less control over the final product than all-grain brewing. Specialty grains are often steeped before adding the extract in order to create a broader range of flavors.
See also: Extract, Steeping, Specialty Grains, All-Extract Beer, All-Grain Beer, Mash

Extraction - The removal of soluble materials from a malted grain or adjunct. Extraction occurs during the mash and sparge. The fermentability of an extract is determined by mashing conditions and the type of grain used.
See also: Extract, Mash, Sparge, Fermentability, Efficiency

Farmhouse - A beer made in the same way a farmer would, brewed in a farmhouse from ingredients grown at that farm. Farmhouse ales are generally lighter in color and body, dry and made to be refreshing for farmhands working in the fields. They are often fermented with bacteria or brettanomyces to create funky flavors or a pronounced sourness. One of the most well known examples of a farmhouse style is saison, which has a pronounced dryness and refreshing quality.
See also: Brettanomyces, Bacteria, Dry

Fatty Acid - Any one of a large number of acids that appear in fats, waxes and essential oils. Fatty acids occur in many forms, including as esters that are produced by yeast metabolism. If a beer is left on the trub for too long, fatty acids can start breaking down and cause a soapy off-flavor.
See also: Ester, Trub, Off-Flavor

Fermentability - The degree to which yeast will be able to consume the sugars in a solution to create alcohol. The fermentability of a wort or must depends on what type of sugars are in it. Fermentable sugars will be converted to alcohol, leaving a dry flavor behind. Unfermentable sugars will not be converted, leaving behind residual sugars that increase the body of a beverage and may impart sweetness.
See also: Fermentable Sugar, Unfermentable Sugar, Residual Sugar, Apparent Attenuation

Fermentable Sugar - Any sugar that can be consumed by yeast and turned into alcohol. These sugars leave little behind in the way of flavor or sweetness and will create a thinner, dryer body. Simpler forms of sugars tend to be fermentable.
See also: Unfermentable Sugar, Fermentability, Glucose, Sucrose, Maltose

Fermentation - The process of converting sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Yeast ferment sugar rich wort or must, turning them into alcoholic beverages. By controlling the fermentation process, humans transform sugar into alcoholic beverages. Fermentation is an anaerobic process.
See also: Alcohol, Primary Fermentation, Secondary Fermentation, Zymurgy, Anaerobic, Stuck Fermentation

Fermenter - Any vessel in which fermentation is conducted. Homebrewers typically use plastic buckets and glass carboys as fermenters, but stainless steel tanks and wooden barrels are also common.
See also: Carboy, Fermentation, Primary Fermenter, Secondary Fermenter

Filtration - The process of forcing fluids through a finely porous material in order to strain out sediment and other small solids. Alcoholic beverages are often filtered to remove residual yeast, finings, proteins or haze causing particles. Filtered products are typically crystal clear and can have improved stability.
See also: Clarity, Finings, Stability, Haze

Final Gravity (FG) - The specific gravity reading of a beverage after fermentation has completed. Final gravity is the end point of attenuation and is used along with original gravity to determine alcohol content. Sometimes referred to as terminal gravity.
See also: Specific Gravity, Original Gravity (OG), Apparent Attenuation, Alcohol By Volume (ABV)

Fine Grind, As-Is (FGAI) - A measure of the maximum potential extract for a malt given laboratory conditions. This number is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the grain that is soluble in water. This percentage is very similar to Dry Basis, except that it takes into account the small percentage of moisture found in grain kernels, making it slightly more practical.
See also: Extract, Fine Grind, Dry Basis (FGDB)

Fine Grind, Dry Basis (FGDB) - A measure of the maximum potential extract for a malt given laboratory conditions. This number is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the grain that is soluble in water. This percentage is the basis for calculating both PPG and HWE. Multiplying this percentage by the PPG of Sucrose (46) will yield the PPG of the grain.
See also: Extract, Fine Grind, As-Is (FGAI), Points per Pound per Gallon (PPG), Hot Water Extract (HWE), Efficiency, Sucrose

Finings - Ingredients that improve clarity by helping yeast, proteins and polyphenols to flocculate and fall out of suspension. Better flocculation improves the effectiveness of racking. Some common finings are irish moss, bentonite, kieselsol and isinglass.
See also: Clarity, Flocculation, Racking, Yeast, Protein, Polyphenol
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Finishing Hops - Also called `aroma hops`, these are hops that are added to wort towards the end of the boil. Adding hops at this late stage helps to preserve their flavor and aromatic properties. Hops added this late do not contribute much bitterness to a beer, since there is not enough time to isomerize the alpha acids.
See also: Hops, Perceived Bitterness, Alpha Acids, Aroma, Bittering Hops, Dual-Purpose Hops

Flavor - The taste sensation from a beverage. Flavor is one of the primary factors of the overall enjoyment of a beverage. The perception of flavor is affected by aroma, since the senses of taste and smell are linked. Flavors and aromas of a beverage are derived from the ingredients, fermentation conditions and storage conditions.
See also: Aroma, Balance, Aftertaste

Flocculation - The tendency for particles to clump together. The more particles flocculate, the more likely they are to fall out of suspension, which improves the effectiveness of racking and creates better clarity. Flocculation can be improved by adding fining agents. Different yeast strains have different flocculation ratings, and are said to flocculate well if they leave a beverage clear and create a tightly packed sediment.
See also: Racking, Clarity, Finings, Trub, Cold Crashing

Foam - A soft fluffy substance that forms in some carbonated beverages, foam comes from burst CO2 bubbles. The foam can be composed of small bubbles that have a silky texture to them, or large bubbles that burst quickly. The layer of foam that settles at the top of a glass of beer is referred to as the head, and is responsible for the effect known as Belgian Lace. Foam`s ability to form and remain intact is effected by the presence of proteins, which help a foam layer retain its structure.
See also: Head, Belgian Lace, Protein
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Force Carbonation - The process of carbonating a beverage by placing it under pressure in a CO2 rich environment. The carbon dioxide in the container will be forced into solution by the pressure, creating a carbonated drink. The amount of carbonation that will be achieved depends on the amount of pressure applied and the temperature of the beverage. Force carbonation requires more equipment than bottle conditioning, but is easier and more consistent.
See also: Carbonation, Carbon Dioxide, Conditioning, Carbonic Acid

Fortification - Adding additional alcohol to a fermented beverage in order to boost its ABV. The high alcohol content prevents further fermentation from occurring. Sherry and Port are both examples of a fortified wine.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Blending, Amelioration

Fractional Freezing - The process of storing an alcoholic beverage in sub-zero temperatures and allowing it to begin to freeze. The ice crystals (which are mostly water) are removed, leaving behind a more concentrated product with higher alcohol and more pronounced flavors. Eisbocks are created by using this technique on doppelbocks, further enhancing their strong malty and alcoholic qualities. All flavor aspects are enhanced by this process, even off-flavors, so a clean base product is a must. Fractional freezing is considered a form of distillation in many locales, and may require a permit to perform legally.
See also: Alcohol, Off-Flavor, Distillation

Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN) - A form of nitrogen that is available to yeast in a must or wort. FAN is a critical nutrient in the reproductive phase of yeast metabolism, and is necessary to ensure a strong, healthy fermentation. Wort made from malted grains usually contains sufficient amounts of FAN, but beverages made from other sources may need it added to them in the form of yeast nutrients.
See also: Amino Acids, Fermentation, Yeast

Fructose - Commonly known as fruit sugar, fructose is an isomer of glucose and has similar fermentability. Fructose is commonly found in fruit and is an important sugar in the making of fruit wines.
See also: Sugar, Glucose

Fusel Alcohols - A group of higher molecular weight alcohols that can be formed during fermentation, but turn into esters under normal conditions. If present in a finished product, fusel alcohols have a solvent-like taste and are partly responsible for hangovers. High fermentation temperatures will promote the formation of fusel alcohols, and can cause the solvent-like off-flavor. They are also known as higher alcohols.
See also: Alcohol, Methanol, Volatile

Gelatinization - The process of making starches soluble in water. Gelatinization is accomplished by applying heat or through the use of enzymes. Many adjuncts need to be boiled before they are added to a mash in order to fully gelatinize their starches.
See also: Starch, Enzymes, Mash, Adjunct

Germination - The beginning of a seed`s growth cycle. Germination is when the acrospire of the seed begins to grow and sprouts from the hull. Malted grains are seeds that have been allowed to germinate partially in order to create enzymes that will be used in mashing.
See also: Grain, Husk, Acrospire, Malt, Green Malt, Mash

Glucanase - An enzyme that breaks down beta glucans, a gum-like molecule found in many grains. Breaking glucans down in a mash will help improve lautering efficiency and prevent stuck sparges, especially when certain specialty grains such as rye or oats are used in large amounts.
See also: Beta Glucans, Enzymes, Lautering, Stuck Sparge

Glucose - Also known as corn sugar or dextrose, glucose is the most common type of sugar used for priming. It is not as fermentable as table sugar, but is still highly fermentable.
See also: Sugar, Priming, Fermentability

Glycerin - An additive that creates additional body and slight sweetness in a finished beverage. Glycerin is most commonly used in wine.
See also: Body, Sweetness

Grain - The seeds of a plant grown for human consumption. Malted grains are the primary source of sugar in beer making. Malted and unmalted grains with various degrees of kilning are used as flavoring agents for beer and other malt beverages.
See also: Barley, Wheat, Oats, Rye, Malt, Kilning

Gravity Units (GU) - A means of expressing specific gravity as whole numbers. Gravity units are the significant digits after the decimal point in the SG measurement. A solution with a gravity of 1.058 would have 58 gravity units. Gravity units are used in equations to make the math work out more easily.
See also: Specific Gravity, Original Gravity (OG), Final Gravity (FG), Hydrometer, Density

Green Malt - Grains that have been malted, but have not yet been kilned to halt the germination process. Green malt will continue to grow into a full plant if germination is not stopped.
See also: Germination, Kilning, Malt

Grist - A bed of crushed malt used for mashing. This term can be used to refer to either the dry grain before mashing, or the bed of grains during mash and sparge. A well crushed grist is largely responsible for conducting a smooth lauter.
See also: Malt, Crush, Mash, Sparge, Lautering

Growler - A large container used for the temporary storage and transport of beer. Growlers are reusable, resealable jugs that can be filled from a draught system and taken home. Beer packaged in a growler does not last as long as beer stored in a bottle or keg and should be drunk as soon as possible. Growlers are not recommended for conditioning homebrew, since they are not all designed to handle the extra pressure requirements.
See also: Bottle, Swing-Top Bottle, Bomber, Draught System

Gruit - A mixture of various herbs and spices that was used as a bittering agent in beers. Gruit was commonplace until hops became popular, and then fell almost entirely out of use. Any herb with bittering characteristics could have been used in a gruit blend, including some that had toxic side effects. In modern times, gruit beers are made by a few brewers and have a wide variety of unique flavors.
See also: Hops, Bitterness

Gyle - A portion of unfermented wort that is added to finished beer to provide sugars for conditioning. Gyle takes the place of corn sugar for priming.
See also: Conditioning, Kraeusening, Priming

Hardness - A measure of the amount of dissolved minerals in water, primarily calcium and magnesium. The hardness of brewing water can affect mash and sparge pH, which effects extract efficiency and the amount of tannins that are extracted as well.
See also: Calcium, Magnesium, pH, Efficiency, Tannin

Haze - A cloudy or misty appearance that may occur in finished beverages. In many types of beverage, haze is considered a fault and should be avoided. Haze can form for a large variety of reasons, usually due to suspended solids that fail to flocculate. Common causes of haze are from tannin and protein interaction (chill haze) or pectins.
See also: Chill Haze, Pectins, Flocculation, Turbidity

Head - The layer of foam that forms at the top of a glass of beer. The head is made up of burst CO2 bubbles that have not yet completely collapsed back into the drink. A good sized head of about one inch can help prevent the aromatics of a beer from escaping too quickly, preserving those qualities throughout the drinking experience.
See also: Head Retention, Foam, Belgian Lace

Head Retention - The ability of a beer`s head to remain intact over time. A beer with good retention will form a thick, creamy head that will take a long time to fall back into the glass. A beer with low retention will form a smaller head that will disappear very quickly. Good head retention improves the heads ability to maintain a beer`s aromatic qualities, and is seen as a general indicator of high quality beer. Head retention is effected by the presence of proteins, which help a foam layer retain its structure.
See also: Head, Foam, Protein, Lipids

Head Space - Also know as airspace or ullage, this is the empty space between a liquid and the top of its fermenter. This space is necessary during primary fermentation to allow for foaming, but should be kept to a minimum after racking a beverage. Excessive space in a container after primary allows the atmosphere to interact with a beverage, causing many potential problems.
See also: Fermenter, Primary Fermentation, Secondary Fermentation, Racking

Heat Exchanger - A piece of equipment used to cool wort prior to fermentation. Usually composed of copper coils or stainless steel plates, a heat exchanger runs hot wort and cold water side by side without allowing them to mix. Heat from the wort is absorbed through the conductive metal walls and carried away by the water, quickly reducing wort temperature from near-boiling down to a temperature low enough to pitch yeast.
See also: Immersion Chiller, Counter-Flow Chiller, Chill Plate, Ice Bath, Pitching
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Helles - A German word meaning light in color, helles lagers are a variety of lightly colored German lager beers with a mild and refreshing flavor.
See also: Dunkel, Lager
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Homebrew Bittering Units (HBUs) - A measurement of the amount of Alpha Acids used in a recipe. HBUs the are weight of a hop in ounces multiplied by the alpha acid percentage. Measuring this way helps keep the total amount of alpha acids consistent from batch to batch of the same recipe, which helps maintain a consistent level of bitterness. HBUs are equivalent to AAUs.
See also: Alpha Acids, Alpha Acid Units (AAU), Perceived Bitterness

Honey - The primary fermentable ingredient in mead. Bees take nectar from various plant sources and convert it into a sweet, syrupy substance at the hive. Honey is then extracted from the hive by bee keepers and sold. Honey can be purchased in a large number of varietal forms, or as a non-varietal or "wildflower" form.
See also: Mead, Varietal Honey

Hopback - A container that is filled with whole leaf hops and acts as a sort of filter. A hopback is placed between the brew kettle and primary fermenter and hot wort is pumped through the hops. The leaf hops catch break material, removing it from the wort, and also release fresh aromatics into the wort on it`s way to the fermenter.
See also: Whole Leaf, Brew Kettle, Primary Fermenter, Break Material, Hops, Hopping

Hopping - The act of adding hops to a beer. Hopping is done using a wide variety of techniques to produce different results. The most common method is to add hops directly to the brew kettle. Bitterness is extracted from hops depending on how much time they spend in the boil.
See also: Dry Hopping, Wet Hopping, Hopback, Bittering Hops, Finishing Hops, Boil

Hops - Also known by the botanical name Humulus lupulus, hops are the flowering cone from a vine that grows in cooler climates. The flower-like cones are used as a bittering and flavoring ingredient in beer and impart a wide variety of flavors that can be floral, earthy, spicy, citrusy, piney or fruity. Alpha acids present in the hops create a notable bitterness when boiled, which balances out the sweetness of the malt sugars. Hops also have a natural preservative effect, reducing the risk of bacterial infection in a beer. Hops are available to brewers as whole cones, pellets and plugs.
See also: Whole Leaf, Pellets, Plugs, Alpha Acids, Lupulin Glands, Gruit
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Hot Break - Proteins and tannins that coagulate and fall out of solution during the boil. A good hot break leaves these particles in larger clumps that fall out of suspension more readily, resulting in a clearer beer. A vigorous boil helps promote a good hot break, as does the use of Irish Moss.
See also: Protein, Tannin, Cold Break, Irish Moss

Hot Liquor - A term for the heated water used during a mashing process. Steeping grains in the hot liquor extracts various flavors and sugars to be used later during the brewing process.
See also: Hot Liquor Tank (HLT), Mash, Sparge, Strike Temperature

Hot Liquor Tank - A vessel used for the purpose of heating hot liquor to the desired temperature. Hot water is used for many purposes in brewing, and having a ready supply on hand is a great convenience.
See also: Hot Liquor, Strike Temperature, Mash, Sparge

Hot Side Aeration - The dissolving of oxygen into wort while it is at a high temperature. Oxygen dissolved into wort at temperatures above 120 degrees can form oxidation compounds that will not be absorbed by the yeast during fermentation. Theses compounds taste stale and can reduce the shelf-life of a finished beer. Hot side aeration typically occurs during the mash or just after the boil, but can occur at any point where the wort is splashed while still hot. Hot side aeration is less likely to cause problems than aeration that occurs after fermentation, since fermented beer has more compounds in it that react adversely to oxygen.
See also: Oxidation, Staling, Stability

Hot Water Extract (HWE) - An international unit for measuring the total potential extract of a malted grain. This unit describes the change in specific gravity when an ingredient is added to water. The higher the potential extract of an ingredient, the more sugar it will add to a wort and the more it will raise the original gravity. HWE does not describe the fermentability of the ingredient and does not account for mash efficiency. HWE is measured in liters degree per kilogram and is equivalent to PPG once converted from metric to US measurements.
See also: Extract, Sugar, Specific Gravity, Efficiency, Wort, Points per Pound per Gallon (PPG)

Humidity - The amount of moisture suspended in the atmosphere. Humidity is one of the conditions often monitored in wine cellars, but whether or not it needs to be present or absent is a subject of debate. Certain types of materials can be used to absorb moisture out of the air, lowering humidity.
See also: Hygroscopic, Cellaring

Humulone - One of the three primary alpha acids that provide bitterness to a beer when boiled. Humulone is the most common of the three, and provides the majority of hop bitterness in a beer.
See also: Alpha Acids, Co-Humulone, Ad-Humulone, Bittering

Husk - A dry, flaky outer layer found on many grains. The husks from barley malt provide a natural filtration bed during the lauter, providing clearer wort and reducing the risk of a stuck sparge. Some grains, such as wheat and rye, do not have husks and should be supplemented with rice hulls to prevent a problematic lauter.
See also: Lautering, Stuck Sparge, Rice Hulls

Hydrolysis - The decomposition of solid matter into smaller fractions by acids or enzymes when suspended in water. The break down of starches into smaller sugars during mashing is an example of this.
See also: Enzymes, Acid, Mash

Hydrometer - A tool that measures the specific gravity of a solution. A hydrometer is a calibrated weight that floats at different levels depending on the density of a liquid. A scale printed on the neck can be read to determine the amount of dissolved sugars in a sample of wort or must. The difference in sugar content of two samples can be used to determine the alcohol content of a beverage and the apparent attenuation for a fermentation.
See also: Specific Gravity, Refractometer, Saccharometer, Sugar, Apparent Attenuation, Density

Hygroscopic - A material that tends to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Certain hygroscopic materials called desiccants are used to maintain a dry state in areas where humidity can be problematic. Honey is naturally hygroscopic.
See also: Humidity, Honey

Ice Bath - A method used to cool wort prior to fermentation. The brew kettle is dipped most of the way into ice water, which absorbs heat through the conductive metal of the kettle. This reduces wort temperature from near-boiling down to a temperature low enough to pitch yeast. Using an ice bath is not as fast as using an immersion chiller or heat exchanger, but is much simpler and requires less equipment.
See also: Immersion Chiller, Heat Exchanger, Pitching

Immersion Chiller - A type of chilling equipment designed to quickly reduce the temperature of wort. An immersion chiller is made of a copper or stainless steel coil that is placed directly into the brewing kettle. Cold water is pumped through the coil and absorbs heat from the wort. The now hot water is either dumped or saved for cleaning use. An immersion chiller cools wort down faster than an ice-bath, but not as quick as counter-flow chillers or plates. An immersion chiller can be used at the same time as an ice bath to cool wort faster than either method could do alone.
See also: Counter-Flow Chiller, Chill Plate, Ice Bath, Heat Exchanger

Indicator - A substance that is used to determine the endpoint of titration. Phenolphthalein is an indicator that retains it`s color when a solution`s acidity has been neutralized, and is used in titration to determine the total amount of acids in a solution.
See also: Titration, Reagent

Infusion Mash - A mashing process where heating is accomplished by applying hot water. An infusion mash is done as only one step, using a single temperature throughout the entire process. Because there is only a single rest, this type of mash schedule is very simple and the one most commonly used by homebrewers.
See also: Step Mash, Rest, Decoction, Mash, HERMS, RIMS

Inoculate - To introduce a microbial culture into an environment capable of supporting it. Pitching yeast into wort or must is an example of inoculation.
See also: Microbe, Pitching, Yeast, Bacteria, Wort, Must

International Bittering Units (IBUs) - A method of measuring hop bitterness. IBUs represent the total alpha acid units adjusted for factors of wort volume, wort gravity and the timing of hop additions. A single IBU is equivalent to 1 milligram isomerized alpha acid in 1 liter of beer. A beer with higher IBUs will generally be more bitter than a beer with low IBUs, but the actual perceived bitterness depends on the balance between IBUs and sweetness from other ingredients. If very old or poorly stored hops are used to brew a beer, the estimated IBUs may actually be higher than the actual concentration of alpha acids due to the reduction of alpha acids in the hops.
See also: Homebrew Bittering Units (HBUs), European Bitterness Units (EBU), Alpha Acids, Alpha Acid Units (AAU), BU:GU Ratio, Balance

Invert Sugar - A syrupy mixture of glucose and fructose that is found naturally in some fruits. Can be produced by inverting cane sugar (sucrose), which is done by mixing the sugar with water and applying heat until it becomes a syrup. Invert sugar is used in many British beers to add additional fermentables.
See also: Sugar, Glucose, Fructose, Sucrose

Irish Moss - A clarifier composed of dried seaweed that is rich in carrageenan. The carrageenan promotes the clumping of break material during the boil and while wort is cooling, resulting in faster and more complete flocculation of these materials. Technically not a fining agent since it is used before fermentation, this is the only clarifier that is added during the boil. Irish moss is available in refined form as Whirlfloc tablets.
See also: Break Material, Boil, Clarifier, Finings, Whirlfloc Tablets
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Isinglass - A fining agent produced from the swim bladders of fish. Isinglass consists mainly of the collagen protein, which electrostaticly gathers yeast cells and helps them flocculate, producing clearer beer.
See also: Finings, Flocculation

Isomerization - Rearranging the molecular structure of an organic compound. The alpha acids found in hops are isomerized during the boil, which brings out their bitterness. The longer a hop is boiled, the more isomerization occurs and the more bitterness is provided.
See also: Utilization, Boil, Iso-Alpha Acids

Keg - A pressurized container made of stainless steel that is used to store and dispense beer. Kegs are hooked to a CO2 bottle and regulator, that maintains a constant amount of carbon dioxide pressure. This pressure ensures that the beer inside doesn`t lose carbonation and prevents outside air from interacting with it. Kegs are hooked up directly to a draught system, allowing the beer to be served directly from the keg. Kegs come in a variety of types and sizes.
See also: Soda Keg, Commercial Keg, Draught Beer, Draught System, Carbonation

Keg Coupler - Also referred to as a sanke coupler or tap, keg couplers are used to pour beer from a commercial style keg. Commercial couplers provide the connections from the keg to the CO2 gas tank faucet. The coupler remains attached to a draught system to provide for easy swapping between one keg and another. There are several different styles of keg ports and each one requires a matching coupler. The most common coupler types are the D-System (most American beers) and the S-System (many European beers).
See also: Commercial Keg, Draught System, Beer Barrel (BBL)
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Keg Disconnect - A type of quick disconnect designed to work with soda kegs. They are affixed to the end of a hose and easily attach and detach from the keg`s posts. When detached, they create a seal to prevent gas or beer from leaking out of the system. Soda keg disconnects come in either ball-lock or pin-lock varieties, and each type of disconnect only works with the matching style posts.
See also: Quick Disconnect, Soda Keg, Draught System
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Kilning - The final step in the malting process. Malted grains are roasted to halt the growth of the plant and to reduce any moisture contained within the kernel. The temperature and duration of the roasting has a great effect on the final flavors contributed by the grain.
See also: Malt, Germination, Green Malt

Kraeusen - A rocky layer of foam that builds on top of a beer during primary fermentation. The foam is composed mostly of active yeast cells and can be removed for later use. The kraeusen usually falls back into the beer after fermentation has finished. The appearance of a kraeusen layer or the ring it leaves behind in the fermenter is a clear indicator that fermentation is occurring.
See also: Primary Fermentation, Top Cropping, Barm

Kraeusening - A method of conditioning beer. At bottling time, unfermented wort is used to prime the batch instead of refined sugars. Malt sugars from the fresh wort are eaten by the yeast to create carbonation in the bottle.
See also: Conditioning, Priming , Carbonation, Gyle

Lactic Acid - A tart and sour acid that is produced by bacteria. Small amounts of lactic acid are sometimes used to balance the pH of a mash, but amounts large enough to taste are usually considered a flaw. Certain sour styles contain large amounts of lactic acid by intent, which gives these beers their characteristic flavors.
See also: Acid, pH, Sour, Off-Flavor

Lactose - An unfermentable sugar that is derived from milk. Since yeast can`t digest it, lactose will add significant body and creamy texture to a beer without increasing the alcohol content. Lactose is often added to stouts to create the `milk stout` style.
See also: Fermentability, Sugar, Mouthfeel

Lag Phase - A period of adaptation and rapid growth of yeast after it is first pitched into wort. The lag phase can last anywhere from 2 to 36 hours, but 12 to 24 hours is most common. Lag time can be reduced by employing a yeast starter.
See also: Yeast, Pitching, Respiration, Yeast Starter

Lager - A type of beer brewed with bottom fermenting yeast at cooler temperatures. A cool, long fermentation produces a beer with very little ester flavors. Lagers tend to be clean tasting and clear. Lagers are usually fermented at temperatures between 45 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit, then stored (lagered) at much colder temperatures.
See also: Ale, Esters, Lagering

Lager Yeast - Saccharomyces uvarum yeast strains that are generally bottom fermenting. Lager yeasts tend to ferment best at temperatures between 45 and 55 degrees.
See also: Yeast, Ale Yeast, Bottom-Fermenting, Lager

Lagering - The process of aging a beer at cold temperatures for long periods of time. The extended aging period helps to enhance sedimentation before bottling and create very clean flavors in the finished brew. This is standard practice for making lager beers. Lagering is done at colder temperatures than normal cellaring. The term comes from the German word meaning "to store".
See also: Lager, Aging, Cellaring

Lauter Tun - A brewing vessel used to conduct the lautering process. Liquid is strained out of the tun, while the grist remains in place. A lauter tun can be its own separate vessel, or can be integrated into the mash tun.
See also: Lautering, Grist, Mash Tun

Lautering - The act of straining fresh wort from the grist after mashing. Lautering separates the liquid and dissolved sugars from the grist so that it can be boiled. Hulls from the grain create a natural filter during lautering, which prevents excessive amounts of haze causing particles to make it into the kettle. Lautering and sparging are often performed at the same time.
See also: Lauter Tun, Mash, Sparge, Grist, Husk, Vorlauf

Lawnmower Beer - Any beer that is light, easy drinking and mild in alcohol content. Typically used to describe light American lagers and cream ales, this is the kind of beer you`d drink while doing yard work on a sweltering summer day.
See also: Session, Alcohol By Volume (ABV)

Lees - The sediment found at the bottom of a fermented wine. The lees are composed of compacted yeast that have finished fermenting and fallen to the bottom of the container.
See also: Racking, Flocculation, Sediment, Trub

Lipids - Any of various substances that can be dissolved in organic solvents. Fats and waxes are all lipids. Lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are the primary structural components of living cells. When present in a final product, they can cause soapy off-flavors or reduce a beers ability to form a foam head.
See also: Protein, Carbohydrate, Head

Liquefaction - The process of making a substance more fluid. As amylase enzymes break starches down into smaller sugars, wort becomes less viscous and more liquefied.
See also: Amylase, Enzymes, Wort, Mash

Liqueur - A distilled beverage that is packaged with sugar and flavorings. The flavor and sweetness of these additives make liqueurs easier to drink than spirits.
See also: Liquor, Spirit, Distillation

Liquid Malt Extract (LME) - Malt extract that has had some of its water content removed. A manufacturer performs the mashing process to create the malt extract, then uses special processes to dehydrate it as much as possible while minimizing flavor changes. This pre-made wort is then reconstituted by homebrewers, removing the need for them to perform a mash themselves. Brewing with extract is much easier than brewing with grain, but limits some of a homebrewer`s control. Liquid malt extract has been condensed down to about 20% water content and comes in a syrup form. It does not store as well as dry malt extract and should be used as fresh as possible.
See also: Dry Malt Extract (DME), Extract, Mash, Malt
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Liquor - Any distilled beverage with a high alcohol content. Liqueurs and spirits are forms of liquor, but the words are not interchangeable. Liquors are blended with various fruits and soda to create mixed drinks, or drunk straight a little bit at a time.
See also: Liqueur, Spirit, Distillation, Alcohol

Lovibond - A unit of malt color measurements based on standard solutions. The higher the lovibond rating of a grain is, the darker that grain will make a beer. Lovibond is practically equivalent to SRM at low levels, but they become more disparate as levels increase and a beer gets darker.
See also: Standard Reference Method (SRM), Color

Lupulin Glands - Small glands at the base of hop cones which contain the resins and oils used by brewers. The glands can be ruptured by rubbing a hop cone between your fingers, exposing the lupulin and other oils.
See also: Lupulin, Essential Oil, Whole Leaf

Maillard Reaction - A browning reaction caused by heat. Sugar and amino acids form a more complex molecule which yields various coloring and flavor compounds later on. Maillard reactions yield melanoidins in malt, which are one of the primary flavoring aspects of many toasted malts or decoction mashed beers. These reactions are also the cause of the browning of toast.
See also: Decoction, Sugar, Amino Acids, Melanoidin

Malt - Cereal grains that have gone through the malting process. The grains are moistened and allowed to begin sprouting, which causes natural changes to the grains chemical composition. Sugars, starches and amylase enzymes are produced within the grain during malting, which are later used during the mashing process. Once malting is finished, the grains are kilned to halt the growth of the plant. Barley is the most commonly used malt for brewing.
See also: Mash, Amylase, Kilning, Germination, Grain, Starch
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Maltose - A type of disaccharide sugar commonly found in malted ingredients. Maltose is the preferred food for brewing yeasts and yields a smoother, more complex flavor than most other sugars. It is the most common sugar found in all malt wort, with maltotriose being the next most common.
See also: Sugar, Yeast, Maltotriose, Disaccharide

Maltotriose - The second most common sugar in brewing wort. Maltotriose is often the last sugar consumed by yeast, as it is more complex than maltose or other wort sugars.
See also: Sugar, Maltose, Fermentation, Yeast

Mash - The process of steeping malted grains in hot water to promote enzymatic action. The amylase enzymes in the grain break down starch molecules into simpler sugars that yeast can metabolize during fermentation. These sugars, along with various flavor compounds, are absorbed into the water to create wort. A mash is conducted at 140 to 160 degrees to optimize amylase activity.
See also: Mash Tun, Base Grains, Starch, Wort, Lautering, Hydrolysis

Mash Tun - A brewing vessel used to conduct a mash. Malted grains and hot liquor are combined in this container to create wort. Mash tuns used by homebrewers are usually either converted coolers or stainless kettles with false bottoms and drains.
See also: Mash, Lauter Tun, Hot Liquor, Wort, False Bottom

Mead - A wine-like beverage produced by fermenting honey. Mead can range from very sweet to dry, but usually has a honey-like note to it. A large number of variations on mead are produced by adding ingredients such as fruits, herbs, grains and just about anything else.
See also: Sack Mead, Quick Mead, Melomel, Metheglin, Braggot
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Melanoidin - Strong flavor compounds that are produced by Maillard reactions when heat is applied to a sugar. Melanoidins are a large part of the flavor from toasted malts or decoction mashing. Melanoidin malt is a special type of grain that is designed to mimic the flavors of doing a decoction mash.
See also: Maillard Reaction, Malt, Decoction

Methanol - Also known as wood alcohol, methanol is toxic to humans. Fermentation by beer or wine yeast does not produce methanol in any appreciable amount, but the distillation of fermented beverages can concentrate methanol into dangerous levels.
See also: Alcohol, Ethanol, Distillation

Microbe - A living organism that is too small to be seen by the naked eye. Most microbes live in colonies and have significant roles in the production of fermented beverages. Some microbes are beneficial, causing the fermentation to create alcohol. Some microbes are detrimental, causing unwanted flavors and sourness.
See also: Bacteria, Yeast, Fermentation, Off-Flavor, Agar

Modification - A measurement of how much a grain has been altered by the malting process. Highly modified grains are easiest to mash, and usually only need a single rest. Less modified malts require a step mashing process to prepare them for saccharification. Most commercially available malts are highly modified.
See also: Malt, Mash, Step Mash, Saccharification

Monosaccharide - The most basic form of sugar, monosaccharides bond together to form complex sugars and carbohydrates. Glucose (corn sugar) and fructose are monosaccharides.
See also: Disaccharide, Trisaccharide, Carbohydrate, Glucose, Fructose, Sugar

Mouthfeel - The impression of texture from an alcoholic beverage as it is consumed. Mouthfeel can be used to describe body, texture, carbonation and the way these attributes change as the drink is held in the mouth.
See also: Body, Texture, Carbonation, Viscosity

Must - The unfermented or partially fermented blend of sugar, water and flavoring compounds that will become an alcoholic beverage. The term must is used to describe fruit, grape or honey mixtures, while a similar mixture made from grains is called wort.
See also: Sugar, Water, Fermentation, Wort, Amelioration

Nutrient - Any one of a number of mineral additives used to support yeast growth and promote a strong fermentation. Providing nutrients for the yeast helps make a fermentation faster, with less lag time and higher attenuation. Most nutrient additives are used to boost FAN, a critical component in yeast metabolism.
See also: Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN), Lag Phase, Apparent Attenuation

Off-Flavor - Any flavor in a finished beverage that is unintended or unpleasant. Off-flavors are often caused by the existence of unwanted chemical by-products, improper procedures or bad sanitation. They tend to distract from the desired flavor characteristics of a beverage and lesson the overall drinking experience. Some commonly found off-flavors are: alcoholic, astringent, buttery, cidery, creamed corn, fruity, grassy, grainy/husky, green apple, horse blanket, medicinal, metallic, moldy, papery, rotten eggs, soapy, solvent-like, sour, skunky, sweaty socks and yeasty.
See also: By-Product, Astringency, Precursor

Open Fermentation - Fermentation performed in an open top container such as a coolship. These conditions allow interaction with the outside air, which can improve yeast performance but also creates the risk of contamination from wild yeast or bacteria.
See also: Closed Fermentation, Fermentation, Wild Yeast, Bacteria, Coolship

Original Gravity (OG) - The specific gravity reading of a beverage before fermentation has begun. Original gravity represents the total amount of dissolved solids in solution and can be used to determine a potential alcoholic yield. Total alcoholic percentage of a beverage can be determined using both original and final gravity.
See also: Specific Gravity, Final Gravity (FG), Apparent Attenuation, Alcohol By Volume (ABV)

Oxidation - A chemical reaction where dissolved oxygen combines with flavor compounds in a solution. Oxidized beverages have distinct off-flavors that can be described as papery or wet cardboard-like. Oxidation also causes an undesired browning effect in the color of wines. The unique character of sherry or port wines is caused by controlled amounts of oxidation, but it is considered a fault in most other beverages.
See also: Oxygen, Off-Flavor, Hot Side Aeration

Oxygen - A chemical element that is used in the metabolic processes of many living organisms. Yeast cells use oxygen to prepare for fermentation, making it a necessary component of a successful fermentation. Aerating wort or must before pitching yeast can ensure there is plenty of oxygen for the yeast to use. After the yeast`s respiration phase, oxygen should not come into contact with fermenting beverages. Late contact can cause oxidation off-flavors or promote bacterial activity.
See also: Aerate, Respiration, Yeast, Oxidation

Parti-gyle - A brewing method that creates multiple beers from one grain bill. A mash is conducted on a large grain bill and lautered into a holding vessel. Then a second mash is conducted on the same grains to extract the remaining sugars from it. Multiple mashes may be conducted on those same grains, sometimes with small amounts of fresh grains added. The wort from each mash is blended in varying proportions and each blend is boiled separately to make different brews. Typically, beer made from the first wort will be strong in flavor and alcohol while beer made from the last wort will be a much milder, session brew that is often referred to as a table beer. This method makes it possible to produce a large number of different beers using only one grain bill.
See also: Mash, Extraction, Session, Table Beer, Lautering

Parts Per Million (PPM) - A means of measuring the concentration of a soluble material in a solution. PPM is equivalent to one milligram of a substance in one liter of liquid. This scale is commonly used to express the amount of a dissolved mineral in water. Municipal water reports will usually list mineral and chemical content of the tap water in ppm. PPM is equivalent to milligrams per liter (mg/L).
See also: Minerals, Water, Water Report, Water Salts

Pectin - A complex carbohydrate found in fruits and plants that becomes gelatinous in the presence of sugar and acid. Pectins are gummy in texture and can cast haze in a finished beverage. Pectic enzyme can be used to break them down, releasing more of the flavors from the fruit and reducing haze.
See also: Carbohydrate, Haze

Pellets - Hop cones that have been ground into a fine powder and compressed into small pellets. Pellets tend to have less variation from ounce to ounce, and are often a blend of multiple crops. Pellets store better than whole leaf or plugs, retaining their alpha acids for longer.
See also: Hops, Whole Leaf, Plugs, Alpha Acids

Pentosans - Gum-like complex carbohydrates that are found in honey. Pentosans are colloids and do not dissolve into the honey, and are slow to settle out in the fermenter.
See also: Honey, Carbohydrate, Colloids

Peptidase - An enzyme that breaks up short polypeptide chains in the endosperm, forming amino acids. The amino acids serve several purposes in the brewing process.
See also: Enzymes, Endosperm, Amino Acids, Polypeptide

Perceived Bitterness - A subjective description of the amount of bitterness someone can detect in a finished beer. Different people will taste bitterness at different levels, so perceived bitterness will vary for each person. A higher amount of alpha acids (measured in IBUs) will increase bitterness and a higher amount of residual sugars will balance the bitterness out, making the brew seem less bitter overall.
See also: Bitterness, Alpha Acids, Residual Sugar, International Bittering Units (IBUs), BU:GU Ratio, Balance

Petillant - Pronounced pay-tee-yawn, this is a French term that refers to wine that is mildly carbonated. Any wine that is fizzy fits this description, but highly carbonated wines are called sparkling instead.
See also: Sparkling Beverage, Champagne

pH - A scale that measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale is logarithmic, with 7 representing neutral. Values below 7 represent acids and values above 7 represent bases. Knowing the pH of a solution can be very useful to brewer`s and vintner`s, as it can have a significant effect on mashes and fermentation.
See also: Acidity, Alkalinity, Fermentation, Mash

Phenol - A group of compounds that can have a wide array of flavors ranging from spicy clove to plastic, band-aid and medicinal. Phenols can be derived from yeast and bacteria or extracted from grains during the mash. Some beer styles require phenolic flavors, but in most they are considered an off-flavor. Phenols can react with other chemicals to create polyphenols.
See also: Off-Flavor, Polyphenol, Mash, Yeast

Pitching - The term for adding yeast to a fermenter. Yeast is gently poured or sprinkled into aerated wort or must so it can begin fermenting into an alcoholic drink. Nothing to do with baseball.
See also: Yeast, Fermenter, Must, Wort, Inoculate, Barm

Plato - A unit for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. This is the scale most commonly used by professional brewers. One degree Plato is the equivalent of 1 gram sucrose in 100 grams of water. °Balling, °Brix and °Plato are nearly identical, and are used interchangeably for all practical purposes. One degree Plato is roughly equivalent to four gravity points (or a specific gravity of 1.004) at lower gravities, but this calculation becomes less accurate at gravities higher than 1.050.
See also: Specific Gravity, Hydrometer

Plugs - Whole leaf hops that have been rolled into discs of a uniform weight. Usually found in 1/2 ounce increments, the uniform size makes it easier for brewers to measure them, but does not allow for additions of less than that amount.
See also: Hops, Whole Leaf, Pellets

Points per Pound per Gallon (PPG) - A means of measuring the total soluble extract of a malt. This unit describes the change in specific gravity when one pound of an ingredient is added to enough water to create one gallon of wort. The higher the PPG of an ingredient, the more sugar it will add to a wort and the more it will raise the original gravity. PPG does not describe the fermentability of the ingredient and does not account for mash efficiency. PPG is equivalent to the international unit HWE, when converted to metric.
See also: Extract, Sugar, Specific Gravity, Wort, Efficiency, Hot Water Extract (HWE)

Polypeptide - A long chain of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. Polypeptides are the building blocks of proteins, which appear in wort. They can also be broken down into their base amino acids, which have several functions during a mash.
See also: Amino Acids, Protein, Peptidase

Polyphenol - A polymer composed of phenols that contributes to haze and staling reactions. Polyphenols combine with proteins to create complexes that can cause haze in a finished beer, particularly chill haze. They can be leeched from grains during mashing if the pH is off or the mash is overly sparged. A good hot break and cold break will help reduce the total amount of polyphenols that make it into the finished product.
See also: Phenols, Haze, pH, Protein, Chill Haze, Break Material

Pomace - The leftover skins, pulp, stems and seeds from a fruit after it has been pressed. The pressing action squeezes all the juice from the fruit leaving behind these solid remains. Pomace can be used to make wines or cider with very low alcohol content, although the presence of seeds and skins can affect the final flavor.
See also: Fruit, Juice, Press

Precursor - The starting materials for a chemical reaction. Precursors will often have no effect on a finished beverage, but react to create new compounds with powerful flavors. Controlling the amount of precursors in a beverage will help to prevent the formation of these new compounds and reduce the off flavors associated with them.
See also: Off-Flavor, By-Product

Primary Fermentation - The most vigorous stage of fermentation. This is the stage where the airlock will bubble wildly and the kraeusen layer will form. Most of the alcohol will be produced during this stage. Primary will usually last between 3 and 7 days given good fermenting conditions.
See also: Fermentation, Kraeusen, Secondary Fermentation, Lag Phase

Primary Fermenter - The vessel in which the primary fermentation occurs. A beverage may be left in the primary to complete fermentation, or it may be racked to a secondary fermenter to improve clarity.
See also: Secondary Fermenter, Racking

Priming - The act of adding a small, controlled amount of sugar to a beer before bottling. Residual yeast in the beer will eat these sugars, creating carbon dioxide. The CO2 is then trapped in the bottle and reabsorbed by the beer to create carbonation.
See also: Conditioning, Priming Sugar, Kraeusening

Priming Sugar - Any fermentable sugar added to a beer before bottling to create carbonation. Corn sugar (dextrose) is the most common choice for priming.
See also: Priming, Conditioning, Corn Sugar

Prohibition - Sometimes referred to as `The Noble Experiment`, this was a law forbidding the sale, production, importation, and transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States. Prohibition was instituted by the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and then repealed by the 21st Amendment on December 5, 1933. Prohibition did not explicitly outlaw the private possession of alcohol, but some state and local laws were much stricter. Prohibition sparked the prominence of speakeasies and `bathtub gin` and is often blamed for an increase in organized crime during the same era, as crime families would make a lot of profit from the illegal production and sale of spirits.
See also: Eighteenth Amendment, Twenty First Amendment, Speakeasy, Alcohol, Spirit

Proof - A scale for describing the alcohol content of a beverage. Proof is roughly twice the alcohol percentage by volume, so a beverage that is 20 proof would be 10% ABV. Proof is largely used for liquors and other high alcohol drinks. Proof can be measured using a specially calibrated hydrometer.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Tralle, Hydrometer

Protease - An enzyme that breaks up large proteins in the endosperm. Larger proteins would otherwise cause haze in a finished beer.
See also: Enzymes, Protein, Endosperm, Haze

Protein - Long polypeptide chains that are joined together in a way that serves a biological function. Proteins are extracted from grains during the mash or steep and are present in the wort. Large proteins can cause haze in a finished beer, but ensuring a good hot break and cold break will cause the proteins to settle out better and ensure clarity.
See also: Polypeptide, Clarity, Hot Break, Cold Break, Proteolysis, Lipids

Proteolysis - The degradation of proteins by enzymes such as protease and peptidase. Breaking down proteins and polypeptides helps to reduce haze and provide amino acids for the brewing process.
See also: Enzymes, Protein, Protease, Peptidase, Polypeptide, Amino Acids

Quaff - To drink heartily, deriving great pleasure and satisfaction from the beverage. The term is mostly used with alcoholic beverages.
See also: Alcoholic Beverage, Beer, Wine, Cider, Mead

Racking - Carefully siphoning a beverage from one container to another, leaving behind any trub or lees that may have settled on the bottom or solid ingredients such as fruit. Racking helps to improve the clarity of a finished product and can help to prevent certain off-flavors from forming.
See also: Siphoning, Trub, Lees, Off-Flavor

Reagent - Any compound involved in a chemical reaction. In titration, a reagent of known strength is slowly added to a solution until it reacts enough to cause a chemical change, as shown by the indicator. Wine makers test total acidity this way, measuring the amount of reagent needed to neutralize the acidity in a sample of wine or must.
See also: Titration, Indicator

Real Ale - Any top-fermented beer that completes its secondary fermentation in the container from which it will be served. These are naturally carbonated beers that often have low carbonation and are served at cellar temperatures, emphasizing the complexities of the brew`s flavor. Real ale is served from large tanks or casks, and will change its flavor as the balance between beer and empty space in the vessel changes. Live yeast continues to act on the beer while it is stored, which also impacts the flavor of a real ale over time.
See also: Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA), Cask, Secondary Fermentation, Head Space, Ale

Refractometer - A tool for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. A small sample is placed in a glass slide and held up to the light. The light passing through the sample is refracted differently based on the density of the solution. The amount of refraction is measured and used to estimate sugar content. Refractometers are easier to use for taking original gravity readings, but if alcohol is present in a sample the readings need to be adjusted to account for it. These instruments usually measure in Brix.
See also: Specific Gravity, Hydrometer, Saccharometer, Sugar, Density, Brix

Reinheitsgebot - Also known as the "German Beer Purity Law", the Reinheitsgebot was a law that stated only water, barley and hops could be used in the production of beer. The law was enacted before yeast`s role in beer production was known. The use of adjuncts of any kind would make a beer non-compliant. Technically, the Reinheitsgebot prohibits the use of wheat or refined sugars, but some beers using these ingredients will still claim compliance as a marketing tool.
See also: Adjunct, Barley, Water, Hops, Yeast, All-Malt Beer

Residual Sugar - Sugars that are left over from the fermentation process. Residual sugar contributes to body, mouthfeel and sweetness in a fermented beverage. Yeast with high attenuation leave less sugar behind, resulting in a drier tasting drink. Yeast strains with lower attenuation leave more sugars behind, creating a fuller and sweeter product.
See also: Sugar, Unfermentable Sugar, Apparent Attenuation, Body, Mouthfeel, Dry

Respiration - An aerobic process that yeast performs before beginning fermentation. The yeast takes up dissolved oxygen from the wort or must and stores it for later use. Good aeration before pitching provides a lot of oxygen for this purpose. Respiration occurs during the lag phase.
See also: Aerobic, Lag Phase, Aerate, Oxygen, Pitching

Rest - A specific stage of a mashing schedule. The mash is held at a specific temperature to promote the activity of a specific enzyme. Each rest causes a different change to the mash and promotes a different effect on the final beer. With modern malt, only the saccharification rest is absolutely necessary, but undermodified malt or mashes with a lot of adjuncts may require multiple rests to use the grain effectively.
See also: Protein Rest, Glucan Rest, Saccharification Rest, Acid Rest, Modification, Decoction

Rice Hulls - The husks from rice plants. These are added to all grain beers during the mash as a lautering aid. They help prevent a stuck sparge when using a large amount of grains that do not have their own husks, such as wheat or rye.
See also: Stuck Sparge, Husk, Lautering
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Rousing - Stirring up a beverage during fermentation in order to agitate the yeast and draw flocculated sediment back up from the bottom of the fermenter. Rousing the yeast can help restart a stuck fermentation or improve the speed and attenuation of a fermentation. Since rousing requires the fermenter to be opened, it can increase the risk of oxidation or bacterial contamination.
See also: Stuck Fermentation, Flocculation, Apparent Attenuation, Yeast

Rye - A cereal grain grown all over the world. Malted rye is used in beer making to add a subtle spiciness and mouth-coating texture to the finished brew in addition to fermentable sugars. Rye has a lot of beta glucans in it and no husk, which makes it more difficult to lauter than barley.
See also: Grain, Malt, Sugar, Beta Glucans, Husk

Saccharification - The conversion of malt starches into fermentable sugars. Saccharification occurs during the mash, breaking the large starch molecules into smaller sugars that the yeast can metabolize during fermentation.
See also: Starch, Sugar, Mash, Rest

Saccharometer - Any device that measures the amount of sugar in a solution. Different saccharometers work using a variety of testing methods and scales.
See also: Hydrometer, Refractometer, Specific Gravity, Plato, Balling, Brix

Sanitize - To reduce microbial contaminants to insignificant levels. Sanitizing may leave some microbes alive, but not enough for there to be any chance of a problem.
See also: Sterilize, Clean

Sanitizer - Any chemical used to kill microbes. Sanitizers come in many forms, with acid or iodine based ones being most common for sanitizing equipment. Sanitizers will not kill 100% of microbes, but will reduce them to negligible amounts. Cleaners and Sanitizers are not the same thing and aren`t meant to be used interchangeably.
See also: Cleaner, Bacteria, Sulphite

Secondary Fermentation - A period of settling and aging between primary fermentation and bottling. Yeast will reabsorb many of the by-products from primary fermentation during this phase and the last bits of attenuation will occur. Flocculation occurs at this time, allowing the beverage to clarify some before it is packaged. It is common practice to transfer the beverage to a secondary fermenter at the beginning of this stage to remove trub, improve clarity and prevent autolysis from occurring. If a beer recipe call for dry hopping, this is usually the time to do it.
See also: Flocculation, Primary Fermentation, Secondary Fermenter, Dry Hopping, Trub, Autolysis

Secondary Fermenter - After primary fermentation has finished, it is common practice to transfer a beverage to another vessel for the secondary fermentation stage. This second vessel is preferably a glass carboy, which will better protect the beverage from exposure to the atmosphere. Sediment from the primary fermentation does not make it into the secondary fermenter, resulting in a cleaner and clearer drink.
See also: Secondary Fermentation, Racking, Trub

Sediment - The solid matter that settles at the bottom of a fermenter or bottle. Sediment is mostly composed of dormant yeast, but also contains hop and fruit bits, proteins and other undissolved solids. Sediment is removed from a beverage by racking or filtration.
See also: Trub, Lees, Racking, Filtration

Session - A session beer is any style of brew that is low in alcohol and not overly powerful in flavor. These are beers that can be drunk in large quantities, during long drinking sessions, without the drinker becoming excessively inebriated or full and without wearing out their taste buds.
See also: Lawnmower Beer, Inebriation, Filling, Table Beer, Alcoholic Beverage

Shrink Capsules - Plastic coverings that fit over the top of a wine bottle after it has been corked. When heated, the capsules shrink to fit the neck of the bottle, creating a tight fit. Capsules can improve the long term stability of a bottled wine, and add a touch of elegance to the presentation.
See also: Wine, Stability

Siphoning - Slowly transferring liquid from one container to another using gravity and a tube. Siphoning can be used to relocate liquids while minimizing splashing and interaction with the outside air. Racking is performed by gently siphoning a fermented beverage off its sediment.
See also: Racking, Sediment

Snob - Someone who greatly enjoys wine, beer or other fermented beverages and believes themselves to have superior knowledge or taste. They will happily share their views with anyone, but are reluctant to accept any opposing viewpoints. A snob may judge or look down on someone who does not share their particular views, but may not have as extensive knowledge on their subject of choice as they think they do.
See also: Enthusiast, Connoisseur

Soda Keg - Also called Cornelius kegs or corny kegs, this is a type of keg that used to be used for making fountain drinks but has become popular with homebrewers looking to serve their beers on tap. Unlike commercial kegs, soda kegs have a removable lid that can be opened without any tools. This makes them very easy to fill or clean without using special equipment. Soda kegs have two small posts at the top, one for pushing in carbon dioxide and another for pouring beer. These post connect to disconnects on hoses that lead to either the CO2 tank or faucet.
See also: Commercial Keg, Keg, Keg Disconnect, Draught Beer
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Sour - A kind of off-flavor caused by certain types of acids. Sourness is experienced as a kind of bitter tang in the mouth. Lactic acid caused by bacterial infection is the most common cause of sourness in fermented beverages.
See also: Lactic Acid, Acid, Off-Flavor

Sparge - The process of rinsing the grain bed while lautering. Additional hot water is added to the mash tun after the mash has been completed in order to extract a higher amount of sugars and get a better efficiency. The two most common methods of sparging are batch sparging and continuous sparging, but other methods exist. The word sparge literally means `to sprinkle` in German.
See also: Lautering, Mash, Extraction, Efficiency, Batch Sparge, Continuous Sparge

Sparkling Beverage - Any beverage with significant carbonation. The carbonation produces small bubbles when the drink is poured, giving it a lighter, fizzier body and a bit of zip to the tasting experience. The term sparkling is not generally used for beer or soda (which are always carbonated) but is commonly used with wines, ciders and meads.
See also: Carbonation, Still Beverage, Petillant

Speakeasy - An establishment that illegally sells alcoholic beverages. They were commonly found in the United States during the prohibition era, and largely disappeared when prohibition was repealed. They were sometimes also called a `blind pig` or `blind tiger`. In modern times, the word speakeasy is often used to describe a type of bar with a retro theme to it.
See also: Prohibition, Alcoholic Beverage

Specialty Grains - Malted grain that has been kilned to a high degree. The amylase enzyme in these grains have been denatured during kilning and cannot convert starches into fermentable sugar. The extended kilning process creates a wide array of flavors and colors, depending on how hot and how long a grain is kilned. Only a small amount of specialty grains is needed to create a strong flavor in finished beer.
See also: Base Grains, Mash, Amylase, Kilning, Grain

Specific Gravity - A scale that describes the amount of sugar dissolved in a liquid. This is the scale that is most commonly used by homebrewers. Not a unit of measurement, gravity is expressed as a ratio of the density of a solution versus that of pure water (water has a gravity of 1.000 and ethanol is 0.785). Gravity starts high and drops as sugars are consumed by yeast during fermentation. The gravity of a solution can be measured using a hydrometer.
See also: Original Gravity (OG), Final Gravity (FG), Hydrometer, Gravity Units (GU)

Spirit - Any distilled beverage that has no added sugars and is at least 20% alcohol. Spirits often have a strong alcoholic flavor and are often drunk either very slowly or very quickly.
See also: Liquor, Liqueur, Distillation

Stability - The tendency of a fermented beverage to stay fresh and flavorful for a long period of time. The more stable a product is, the longer a shelf life it will have before it begins to degrade in quality. Various factors can reduce the stability of a drink, from procedural problems such as oxidation to bacterial infections. Maximizing stability is an important goal to most commercial breweries and wineries.
See also: Oxydation, Bacteria

Stabilize - Using heat or a chemical such as potassium sorbate to increase the stability of a beverage and prevent any further fermentation from occuring.
See also: Stability, Pasteurize

Standard Reference Method (SRM) - A means of measuring the amount of color in a beer. This method uses optical spectrophotometers to measure the absorption of light through a standard sized test sample. The more light that is absorbed, the more colorful the beer is. This method does not say much about hue though, particularly how red a beer`s color is. SRM was adopted by the American Society of Brewing Chemists and is the most common means of expressing beer color used in the US.
See also: European Brewing Convention (EBC), American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC), Color

Starch - Large chains of sugar molecules that are bound together. Starch occurs naturally in grains and is broken down by enzymes to produce smaller, fermentable sugars. Starch chains can be straight or branched. The shape of the starch chain affects how enzymes can act on it. If starch is present in a finished beer, it can cause haze problems.
See also: Sugar, Enzymes, Amylase, Amylolysis, Amylose, Amylopectin

Steam Beer - `Steam` beer is a slang term for the California Common style of beer. This style of beer employs lager yeast, but is fermented at higher temperatures than lagers are. The term `steam` came from the fact that freshly tapped serving vessels would expel vapors that looked like steam to anyone watching. Today, the term `Steam Beer` is an appellation owned by the Anchor Brewing Company, which is credited for preventing this style of beer from becoming lost.
See also: Style, Lager, Appellation
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Steeping - The process of soaking grains in hot water to extract flavor compounds. Unlike mashing, steeping is not meant as a means to obtain fermentable sugar. Steeping of specialty grains is done to add flavor complexity to extract beers. Steeping grains is the same process as making tea, allowing the hot water to extract flavors into the liquid.
See also: Mash, Extract Beer, Specialty Grains

Sterilize - To eliminate all forms of microbial life by either chemical or physical means. Complete sterilization is unpractical for homebrewers and is replaced by a thorough sanitization regiment.
See also: Sanitize, Pasteurize, Clean

Still - A device that uses heat to separate alcohol from a fermented beverage. When an alcoholic beverage is heated, the alcohol in it boils off first. This alcohol vapor is then trapped and condensed into a pure liquid alcohol form. Ethanol is not the only alcohol condensed in this manner. Other types can be dangerous when condensed and need to be removed from the distillate by throwing away the first percentage of the run-off and by re-distilling the alcohol to purify it.
See also: Distillation, Liquor, Ethanol, Methanol, Fusel Alcohols

Still Beverage - Any beverage that is not carbonated. The term is used to describe wines, ciders or meads that do not have any bubbles. Still beverages have a fuller body and less zip then sparkling versions of the same drink. The term still is not typically used with beer or soda (which should always be carbonated). Instead, uncarbonated examples of these beverages are called flat, which is considered a fault.
See also: Carbonation, Sparkling Beverage

Strike Temperature - The temperature at which hot liquor is added to a mash. This temperature is hotter than the desired rest temperature, since the cool grains will absorb heat from the water.
See also: Mash, Hot Liquor, Rest

Stuck Fermentation - When a fermentation begins normally, but stops before the beverage reaches its expected final gravity. The under-attenuated beverage will be excessively sweet and have a large amount of residual sugars. If the beverage is bottled in this state, the leftover sugars may be consumed in the bottle and cause excessive carbonation. A stuck fermentation is usually caused by poor yeast health, but can also be caused by lack of aeration or insufficient nutrients.
See also: Fermentation, Attenuation, Final Gravity, Residual Sugar, Aerate, Yeast

Stuck Sparge - When the grain bed compacts too much during the lautering process. This compaction prevents wort from flowing freely through the grist, which greatly reduces the speed of the lauter. A stuck sparge can be remedied by stirring the mash, then performing the vorlauf again. The use of rice hulls can greatly reduce the chances of a stuck sparge, especially when the grist contains huskless grains like wheat or rye.
See also: Sparge, Lautering, Husk, Grist, Compaction, Vorlauf

Sucrose - A disaccharide commonly available as cane or table sugar. Sucrose is the most highly fermentable sugar and is used as the basis for measuring PPG. Because it is completely fermentable, yeast will eat all of it, leaving no residual sweetness behind. Fermenting with sucrose tends to create a dry, highly alcoholic beverage. This is the sugar you usually find at the grocery store.
See also: Sugar, Fermentability, Points per Pound per Gallon (PPG), Residual Sugar

Sugar - A sweet substance that provides food for yeast metabolism. There are many types of sugars, some very fermentable, some almost completely unfermentable. Maltose is the primary sugar found in malt extract and creates a balance between malty flavor and fermentability. Maltotriose is the next most prevalent and one of the most complex sugars in wort. Sucrose and Glucose are refined sugars that increase alcohol due to a high fermentability. Lactose and Malto-Dextrin are non-fermentable sugars that add body to a beer without increasing the ABV. Fructose is a fermentable sugar commonly found in fruit.
See also: Fermentability, Maltose, Sucrose, Glucose, Lactose, Maltodextrin

Sulphite - An antibacterial and antioxidant compound used to prepare a must for fermentation. The sulphite creates trace amounts of sulfur gas that kills bacteria and wild yeast. A culture of prepared yeast is then added to perform fermentation. Excessive use of sulphites can cause a sulfurous aroma and gives some people headaches.
See also: Bacteria, Oxidation, Must, Wild Yeast, Sanitizer
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Swing-Top Bottle - Also known as bail-top, flip-top or grolsch-top, this is a kind of bottle that has a reusable closure fastened to it with metal wire. The top is usually plastic or ceramic with a rubber washer to create a tight seal. This type of bottle is easy to close up and does not require a capper or corker to seal.
See also: Bottle, Bottle Capper, Corker, Bottle Caps, Corks, Growler

Table Wine - A wine that is generally inexpensive and lower in alcohol content than other wines. Table wines are often drunk with meals and are meant to accompany the food, rather than outshine it. In Europe, the term is used to denote a lower quality level of wine that is both cheap to make and to purchase.
See also: Wine, Table Beer

Tannin - A large polyphenol compound with an astringent flavor. Tannins are naturally present in wine grapes and give wines a lot of their bite, balancing out the fruit sweetness. They can also be extracted from grain husks and hop cones, imparting a mouth-puckering bitterness that is unpleasant in most beers. Tannins can also cause haze in certain conditions.
See also: Astringency, Haze, Polyphenol, Balance, Husk

Texture - A way of describing the way a beverage feels in the mouth. Texture describes sensations such as creamy, grainy, silky, smooth, syrupy or rough. Texture is influenced by body and carbonation and contributes to the overall mouthfeel of a beverage.
See also: Mouthfeel, Body, Carbonation, Viscosity

Titratable Acidity - The total amount of acid in a solution as determined by titration. This differs from pH in that it measures the total amount of acid, rather than the balance between acid and base. In wine making, titratable acidity is measured as a percent of tartaric acid using a titration of sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein.
See also: Acidity, Titration, pH

Titration - A method of determining the concentration of a substance in solution. A precise amount of the solution is measured out and mixed with an indicator. A reagent is then added one drop at a time until it causes the indicator to change color. The amount of reagent consumed is measured and used to determine the total amount of the substance being measured. Wine makers use titration to determine the total amount of acids in their wine, rather than the balance of acidity as determined by pH.
See also: Indicator, Reagent, Titritable Acidity

Top-Fermenting - Refers to types of yeast that tend to gather and cause foaming at the top of a fermenting beer. The foam, called a kraeusen, is composed mostly of the active yeast itself. Ale strains are generally top-fermenting.
See also: Ale Yeast, Yeast, Kraeusen

Tralle - A scale for describing the alcohol content of a beverage. Tralle is equivalent to the alcohol percentage by volume, so a beverage that is 20 tralle would be 20% ABV. This scale is largely used for liquors and other high alcohol drinks and can be measured using a specially calibrated hydrometer.
See also: Alcohol By Volume (ABV), Proof, Hydrometer

Trappist - The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance, commonly referred to as Trappists, is a religious order founded at the La Trappe Abbey in France. In beer terms, Trappist is an appellation referring to beers that were made in Trappist monasteries under the supervision of the monks. Revenue from the sale of Trappist beers is used to cover the living expenses of the monks and for upkeep of the monastery. Any additional profit is donated to charity. Any beer that does not follow these guidelines is not called Trappist and is instead referred to as `abbey` or `trappist-style` beer.
See also: Appellation, Abbey Ale

Trisaccharide - A sugar molecule composed of three monosaccharides joined together. Maltotriose is a trisaccharide used in the brewing process.
See also: Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, Maltotriose, Sugar

Trub - The sediment at the bottom of a fermented beer. Trub is composed of hop material, proteins from the hot and cold break, polyphenols and yeast that has flocculated and gone into its resting state. Trub is mostly yeast, and can be reused to make another beverage if it is handled properly.
See also: Racking, Flocculation, Sediment, Lees

Turbidity - The appearance of sediment suspended in a liquid. Another term for hazy or murky. The less turbidity in a finished beverage, the more clear and appealing it will look.
See also: Haze, Clarity

Twenty First Amendment - An amendment to the US Constitution that repealed the 18th Amendment, ending prohibition. The 21st amendment made the production and sale of alcohol legal again. It was ratified on December 5, 1933.
See also: Prohibition, Eighteenth Amendment

Unfermentable Sugar - Any sugar that can not be consumed by yeast and turned into alcohol. These sugars will remain in a finished beverage and impart extra body, flavors and sometimes a noticeable sweetness. Complex forms of sugars tend to be unfermentable.
See also: Fermentable Sugar, Fermentability, Lactose, Maltodextrin

Utilization - The degree to which a hop`s alpha acids are isomerized into iso-alpha acids. A higher utilization means more bitterness per ounce of hops. Utilization is affected by wort gravity during the boil, the amount of time a hop is boiled and how vigorously the boil is conducted.
See also: Isomerization, Iso-Alpha Acids, Specific Gravity, Boil

Vanillin - A compound extracted from oak when a beverage is aged in barrels or with oak chips. Vanillins have a pleasant aroma and flavor that is one of the primary contributions of oak aging.
See also: Aging, Barrel

Varietal - A term referring to a product that is made using predominately a single type of ingredient. Varietal wines are made using mostly one kind of grape and varietal honeys are made from nectar that comes from mostly one floral source. Varietal sources can have a significant impact on the final flavor of a wine or honey.
See also: Varietal Honey, Wine

Varietal Honey - A honey made using nectar that has come primarily from a single type of plant. The nectar source can have a significant impact on the overall flavor of a honey, which carries through into any mead made with it.
See also: Honey, Mead, Varietal
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Vintage - The year a beverage was made. A vintage wine is one where there was no blending of wines made in different years. The particular growing conditions and weather can have a significant impact on the flavor of the wines made that year. The vintage of a beverage can also be used as an indicator of its age.
See also: Blending, Aging

Viscosity - A way of describing the thickness of a liquid. The more viscous a fluid is, the more resistant it is to flowing. High viscosity creates the impression of a thicker, chewier mouthfeel in beverages and increases the perception of body.
See also: Mouthfeel, Texture, Body

Volatile - Easily vaporized. Volatile substances such as esters, hop oils and fusel alcohols evaporate at low temperatures and are easily driven away by boiling.
See also: Esters, Oil, Fusel Alcohols, Boil

Vorlauf - A stage of recirculation that takes place after the mash. Wort is slowly drained from the bottom of the lauter tun and returned to the top of the mash. This process allows the grain husks to form a natural filtration bed which catches small particles, keeping them out of the boil kettle and reducing haze.
See also: Mash, Lauter Tun, Husk, Wort, Haze

Water - The primary ingredient in all fermented beverages. Water contains many mineral salts that can have a profound impact on the final flavor of a drink. The hardness of water can also impact the pH of a mash or must, impacting the extraction of various compounds from ingredients.
See also: Hardness, Water Salts, pH, Extraction, Hot Liquor
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Water Report - A report provided by municipal water companies. This report lists the concentrations of multiple ions in the water, which can be used to determine its suitability for brewing.
See also: Water, Water Salts

Water Salts - Minerals dissolved in the water used to make beverages. The amount of each mineral in the water will have an impact on the pH of the fermenting drink as well as its final flavor. Water will contain different amounts of each mineral depending on its source and whether the water has been treated.
See also: Water, pH, Parts Per Million (PPM), Water Report, Minerals

Wet Hopping - Also known as fresh hopping, this is the technique of adding newly harvested hops into a brew without processing them in any way. Wet hopping imparts unique flavors that are not found in hops that have been processed for storage. Hops used for this technique are not even allowed to dry after harvest, and are typically added to the boil kettle less than 24 hours from when they are picked.
See also: Hops, Whole Leaf, Hopping

Wheat - A cereal grain that is grown all over the world. Malted wheat is used along with barley to make wheat beers, providing a higher amount of proteins and other body building substances than barley does on its own. Wheat has a no husk, which makes it more difficult to lauter than barley.
See also: Grain, Malt, Sugar, Body, Husk

Whole Leaf - Hop cones in their natural form. Whole leaf hops have been dried and packaged for consumers, but have not been compressed in any way. Many believe that the lack of processing creates a stronger, more refined aroma than using pelletized hops or plugs.
See also: Hops, Pellets, Plugs, Wet Hopping

Wine - Any beverage made by fermenting a must made from grapes. Wines are generally classified as either Red or White and are distinguished by the variety of grapes used in producing them.
See also: Red Wine, White Wine, Table Wine, Varietal, Vintage, Alcoholic Beverage

Wort - The solution of malt sugars that is fermented to make beer. This is the liquid that comes from extracting sugar and flavor compounds from malted grains during the mash. Wort is a sweet, rich and complexly flavored liquid that is full of sugar for the yeast to consume. Wort is boiled in the kettle and bittered with hops before it is fermented into beer.
See also: Boil, Fermentation, Mash, Extract, Must, Beer

Yeast - Microorganisms that devour sugar and produce carbon dioxide and alcohol. Yeast are responsible for fermenting wort or must into alcoholic beverages. By-products produced by yeast during fermentation can contribute a wide range of flavors to a finished drink.
See also: Fermentation, Brettanomyces, Saccharomyces, Wild Yeast, Alcohol, Attenuation
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Yeast Starter - A culture of yeast that is grown up before being added to wort or must. Creating a starter will increase the number of active yeast cells and improve their vigor, resulting in a stronger faster fermentation. This will cause a shorter lag phase before active fermentation begins and increase the attenuation of the yeast.
See also: Yeast, Fermentation, Attenuation, Lag Phase

Zymurgy - The science of brewing and fermentation. Zymurgists study the chemical changes that occur during fermentation so that we may better understand, and control, the process. Controlling fermentation allows us to make better alcoholic beverages, with fewer unwanted flavors. It is also the name of a popular homebrewing magazine published by the AHA.
See also: Fermentation, Alcoholic Beverage, American Homebrewer`s Association (AHA)